Yamal Peninsula, In the language of its indigenous inhabitants, the Nenets, "Yamal" means "End of the World".


    The Yamal Peninsula, located in Yamal-Nenets autonomous district of northwest Siberia, Russia, extends roughly 700 km (435 mi) and is bordered principally by the Kara Sea, Baydaratskaya Bay on the west, and by the Gulf of Ob on the east. In the language of its indigenous inhabitants, the Nenets, "Yamal" means "End of the World".

    The peninsula consists mostly of permafrost ground and is geologically a very young place —some areas are less than ten thousand years old. In the Russian Federation, the Yamal peninsula is the place where traditional large-scale nomadic reindeer husbandry is best preserved. On the peninsula, several thousand Nenets and Khanty reindeer herders hold about half a million domestic reindeer. At the same time, Yamal is inhabited by a multitude of migratory bird species.

    Yamal holds Russia's biggest natural gas reserves. The Bovanenkovskoye deposit is planned to be developed by the Russian gas monopolist Gazprom by 2011–2012, the Yamal project, a fact which put the future of nomadic reindeer herding at considerable risk. An estimate of the gas reserves here is 55 trillion cubic meters (tcm), the world's biggest gas reserves and Russia's largest energy project in history. The area is largely undeveloped, but work is going on with three large infrastructure projects – the new 572km Obskaya–Bovanenkovo railway due to be completed in 2011, a gas pipeline, and several bridges.

    The well preserved remains of Lyuba, a 37,000 year old mammoth calf, were found by a reindeer herder on the peninsula in the summer of 2007. The animal was female and was determined to be one month old[2] at the time of death

    Yamal peninsula: The world's biggest gas reserves. Their exploitation will release millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and, on the peninsula itself, pose a grave threat to the Nenets reindeer herders and their ancient way of life.

    Campaigners fear that large-scale gas exploration could ruin the peninsula's delicate Arctic ecology. They also fear that it will squeeze the Nenets' traditional herding routes. Reindeer have already broken legs crossing a new railway line that Gazprom is building across the tundra to its new Bovanenkovo plant. And 160 reindeer herders have already been evicted from their pastures.

    Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District offers tourists more interesting vacation. So, this summer, visitors can also look forward weekend trips, hiking climbing up the mountain from Rye with survey jade valleys and glaciers, walking along a mountain stream to the mountain Nyrdvomenshor "Dinosaur" ethnographic tour "Chum on Swan Lake", traveling on the river Poluj along the railroad tracks Stalinist 501st construction, fishing and more.

    One of the priorities recognized by the development of water tourism in the county. Already from the beginning of the summer catamaran "Yamal" will carry cruise routes to the Ob-Irtysh basin. In addition, in the summer season - 2011 tour offers rafting and Sob Harb.

    Paying attention and ethnographical tourism. Already, many travelers come to Yamal, to live in yurts and learn the traditions of small peoples of the North. Especially these tours are popular with foreign tourists.

    As part of the development of tourism in the region by 2014 will be released on a "single passport" district, containing all the necessary information on tourist infrastructure of Yamal - from hotels and restaurants to the routes and attractions.

    According Rata-News, now Yamal has 67 hotels, 38 travel agencies, 19 museums, 14 protected areas and more than 100 foodservice. Constantly creating new companies working in tourism, and often - with the participation of representatives of indigenous peoples.

    Yamal - «the edge of land» – this is how the name of Yamal peninsula sounds in translation from Nenets into English. Yamal is the land of unique nature, culture and hospitality. The Sacred corner of land where native people managed to keep and carry through the centuries their original unique culture and traditional way of life. Only here you can feel the immensity of space and astonishing total silence of snow-covered tundra! In Yamal you can feel how wise the Northern ancient culture is.

    The development of cultural experience allowed aboriginal populations of the North accumulate traditional knowledge in the field of medicine, folklore, trade and handicraft. They contain richest experience of sustainable use of natural resources, positive attitude toward environment reflected in aspects of indigenous peoples' worldview and traditions.

    Salekhard is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. It is the closest town to the Polar circle, the main parts being about 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) south and suburbs stretching to the north of the circle. Population: 42,544 (2010 Census); 36,827 (2002 Census);[6] 32,334 (1989 Census).

    Salekhard Airport is an airport in Tyumen Oblast, Russia located 7 km north of Salekhard. It is a civilian airfield, handling medium-sized airliners. It is also a designated emergency airfield for commercial airliner cross-polar routes.

    The nearest railway is at Labytnangi on the opposite side of the river Ob. From 1949 to 1953, the Salekhard-Igarka Railway project made an unsuccessful attempt to extend the line to Igarka, claiming the lives of thousands of Gulag prisoners. The section of railway from Salekhard to Nadym was completed and remained in use for some time in the Soviet era, although it was later abandoned. It is currently being rebuilt, along with a long-awaited bridge across the Ob between Labytnangi and Salekhard.

    As of 2010, cars and trucks cross the river by driving across the frozen river ice for 9–10 months a year. In the summer a ferry operates, "but twice a year, during floating of ice, Salekhard lives in a standalone mode, completely cut off from the world. Only helicopter in case of emergency. Native people always build safety stock of food at home, in the shops, in the market for this period, but they still have seasonal price increasing."

    Climate: Salekhard has a subarctic climate with short, mild summers and severely cold winters. Precipitation is moderate, and is significantly greater in summer than in winter.

    You can visit Ostrog (small wooden fortress) which will tell you about the city's history since its inception. The Temple of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul that was built in the nineties of the nineteenth century. Monument "To Romantics of 70s"- dedicated to the development of oil and gas deposits in Yamal, "66 Parallel" - the geographical feature of the city, as the world's only city in the northern Arctic Circle (after the ceremony of crossing the Arctic Circle - presentation of registered certificates confirming this fact, the Yamal Santa Claus "Yamal-Erie"); memorial dedicated to members of Stalin's railway construction «¹ 50» In the Museum and Exhibition Complex named after Shemanovsky there are ethnographic, archaeological, paleontological, and other displays depicting the history of Yamal, culture and traditional lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the Far North ". The world’s best-preserved baby mammoth (was discovered in Siberian mountains by reindeer herder and hunter Yuri Khudi in May 2007) is also shown in this museum.

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