The Valley of Geysers is a geyser field on Kamchatka Peninsula.


The Valley of Geysers is a geyser field on Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and has the second largest concentration of geysers in the world. This 6 km long basin with approximately ninety geysers and many hot springs is situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, predominantly on the left bank of the ever-deepening Geysernaya River, into which geothermal waters flow from a relatively young stratovolcano, Kikhpinych. Temperatures have been found to be 250 C, 500 m below the caldera ground. It is part of the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, which, in turn, is incorporated into the World Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". The valley is difficult to reach, with helicopters providing the only feasible means of transport.

The "pulsating" geysers of Kamchatka were discovered by a local scientist, Tatyana Ustinova, in 1941. She published her findings fourteen years later, but there was little exploration of the area until 1972. A systematic si survey was undertaken in the mid-1970s, and an automatic monitoring system was introduced in 1990. Over thirty geysers were given names; among these was the Giant geyser (Velikan), capable of producing a jet of water reaching up to 40 meters. From the 1980s, the area was promoted across the USSR as one of the tourist magnets of Kamchatka and the Russian Far East. Foreign tourists were allowed into the valley in 1991. About 3,000 tourists visited the site annually.

In 1941, on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Kronotsky Reserve opened a unique natural area - Valley of Geysers. In the local valley, a lush, there were about 20 large geysers that fontaniruya, represented a fascinating spectacle. However, the June 3, 2007, a powerful mudflow covered about two-thirds of the area's unique natural object, and many geysers were lost. It seemed that the unique natural object is lost forever, but just one year nature of the Valley recovered and already on July 1, 2008 it was re-opened to the public. Most geysers resumed their work, in addition, there formed new the hot springs, and the Hot Spring on the river formed a picturesque lake. The shape of the valley has changed, it will change in the future. In the Valley of Geysers Bears are back, and new landscapes began to attract more tourists. Trips to the main tourist destinations in the Valley of Geysers are held in July and September.

Worth visiting Caldera extinct volcano caldera, whose area of 150 sq. km. Here you'll see mud "volcanoes" and the thermal lake. Of the most famous hot springs in Kamchatka is to provide Nalychevskie (hloritno sodium) Timonovsky (sulfate-chloride and sodium bicarbonate), Khodutkinskiye (bicarbonate-sodium chloride) and Malkinskie (hydro-chloride-sulphate-sodium). These sources can swim right in the open.

On June 3, 2007, a massive mudflow inundated two thirds of the valley. Oleg Mitvol of Russia's Service for the Oversight of Natural Resources said "We witnessed a unique natural event, but the consequences of such a natural catastrophe are irreversible". The World Heritage Site also expressed its deep concern over the issue. "This is tragic for humankind, in that we have lost one of the great natural wonders of the world", the World Wildlife Fund spokesman commented. On June 5, it was reported that a thermal lake was forming above the valley.

The extent of permanent change is not yet clear, but may be less than was originally thought. As of June 9, 2007, waters have receded somewhat, exposing some of the submerged features. Velikan (Giant) Geyser, one of the field's largest, was not buried in the slide and has recently been observed to be active.

The Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka - one of the largest concentrations of geysers in the world, and only in Eurasia. The Valley of Geysers is located in the Kronotsky State Biosphere Reserve, which is included on the List of World Natural Heritage.

The river valley is a Hot Spring Canyon (valley) up to 4 km, 400 m and a length of 8 km. These canyons of Kamchatka - dozens, but here at 6 km from the mouth of the river are more than 40 geysers and many pulsating sources, which are conditionally divided into nine sections.

Guided nature trail is currently in the central part of the Valley, the so-called V, VI, VII thermal stations. Here you can watch all known modern forms of hydrothermal activity, including standing, pulsating, and boiling springs, hot lakes, geysers, mud pots, mud volcanoes, steam jets, warm plates, compact, adjacent to a small space.

In the valley there are several dozen geysers. The largest have a name. The names of the geysers were either due to the characteristic color geyserite (Pearl, Pink cone), or the shape and nature of the Gryphon (Grotto, inaccessible, Slit, Wicked) or power (Giant, Fountain, Large, Small). One of the geysers is named after the famous scientist VV hydrogeologist Avereva (Avery). In addition, in the Valley of hundreds of small geysers and hot springs.

The Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka, Russian Far East, is one of the largest geyser fields in the world, and the only one in Eurasia. It is located in the Kronotskiy State Natural Biosphere Reserve that is a part of UNESCO World Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka".

The Valley of Geysers was discovered in 1941 by Kronotsky reserve geologist Tatyana Ustinova and observer Anisifor Krupenin. Since then it became a renowned tourist attraction in Kamchatka. In 2008 the Valley of Geysers was elected as on of seven Wonders of Russia. Only several thousand people visit the Valley every year because of its remote location and reserve status.

One of the largest - Giant Geyser, it is on the left bank. Geyser, like almost all other geysers. Griffin size 3 x 1.5 m, depth - about 3 meters of the geyser eruption begins a powerful burst, and then a column of water soars to a height of 30 m, and clouds of steam rising up to 300 meters

This blowout lasts for 2 minutes, followed by intense geyser soars. Giant striking grandeur of the eruption and a deafening roar. It takes another two minutes, and devastated griffin geyser of water, but the man continued. Then begins the preparation for a new eruption - Gryphon gradually filled with water. Full period of the geyser goes 9.4 hours.

Not far from the Giant Geyser is Pearl. It is as if in the well of boulders covered geyserite resembling pearls. Eruption, or blowouts, this geyser lasts 3 minutes, when the water column soars to a height of 10-12 meters. Later he soars even in times of peace.

Very beautiful fountain geyser erupts. From round the well-griffin diameter of 0.6 m powerful sparkling water jets soar to a height of 20 meters gush lasts for 3 minutes.

Characterized by some pulsating sources. One of them - "Crying", so named because of the fact that he runs a trickle, with increasing pressure to hit a small fountain.

Each one has a specific mode of geysers, erupting in characteristic only of his rhythm. Termoproyavleny temperature - up to 98 C . The composition of water-sodium chloride total mineralization to 2 g / l, with a high content of silica, with the presence of specific micro - lithium, rubidium, and boron. As a part of the gas dominates nitrogen.

Geyser Valley was opened in July 25, 1941 members of the Kronotsky reserve geologist Tatiana Ivanovna Ustinova and observer Anisiforom Krupenin Pavlovich. In 2008, the popular vote went to the Valley of Geysers list of Seven Wonders of Russia.

Valley of Geysers is impossible to perceive, assess, investigate independently of a complex and unique ecological system that has developed around fluid.

The unique community of local thermal bacteria, algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants. The combination of "normal" and intrazonal vegetation areas with significant participation cenoses thermal impact on the local fauna. In this regard, not only photogenic Valley, but rare and bio-ecological characteristics of natural communities caused an increased interest in the Valley of Geysers biologists in various specialties.

To get to the Valley of Geysers is possible only by helicopter. And although it has changed significantly after the landslide June 3, 2007 (about half of the geysers were full of debris avalanche dammed lakes and flooded), however, the valley is alive and continues to be of great interest to scientists and tourists.

Departure by helicopter from Yelizovo the Valley of Geysers. During flight (1ch.30m) inspection Karymskii which almost always is in the stage of the eruption, and the Small Semyachik - its vast crater filled with acid lake greenish-blue color. In the Valley of Geysers - environmental and educational lecture and introduction to the rules of conduct on the reserve. Inspection and surveillance of geysers Valley. Night - out in the direction of the stream base Deaf. Transition (12 km) is simple and takes about 3 hours. Overnight in tents.

World famous unique natural composition, which is considered one of the main attractions of Russia. Specially protected natural area vKronotskom State Biosphere Reserve. The Valley of Geysers was discovered only in 1941, when the hydrologist Kronotsky reserve Tatiana Ustinova and conductor-Itelmen Anisifor Krupenin up the riverbed noisy and stopped between the rocks at the mouth of the unknown flow. The Valley of Geysers in any season filled with swirling jets couple slight smell of sulfur and a sparkling colorful rain splashes. And after a huge landslide blocked the river bed, the Valley of Geysers now adorns lake sky turquoise. True, many geysers were under water, from which now comes the mysterious and menacing roar of the invisible underground activity. A special attraction is to watch the Giant geyser that throws the water column to a height of up to 30 meters, and the clouds of steam on the heights do300 meters and above. Geysers, fumaroles, thermal and min eral "pulsating" sources, as well as whole cascade of small waterfalls are a global phenomenon. These nat ural phenomena in a more significant concentrations occur in only a few spots in the world - New Zeal and, Iceland, Japan and Yellowstone Park in the U.S.. Vents of geysers, some of which have the imagi native names like "Big," "triple," "Firstborn," "Sugar," with clear intervals erupt fountains of boiling water and steam. By 6-km section of the Valley - more than 20 large geysers plus doz ens of small and very small hot springs and steam-gas jets. The wealth of forms and colors of the Valley of Geysers create not only bizarre rocks, cliffs, water fountains and steam geyzeri tovye cones, Lake multimeter and debris flow is cut in half the Valley in June 2007, but the thermop hilic algae and bacteria that develop wherever there is a trickle of hot water .

Aborigines call Kamchatka "Mystic Uykoal country." Discovered this wonderful place in 1697 Cossack Ataman Vladimir Atlasov. Since it is under constant study, but to this day Kamchatka not fully been explored. She is a real woman, keeps a mystery. And this involves a constant, unremitting attention.

15,000 years of living in this harsh edge of the Chukchi, Eskimos, Aleuts, Itelmen, Koryak, Even. And as 15 thousand years ago, foraged reindeer, fishing, fur and smashing sea animals.

Kamchatka earth like smallpox, pitted with craters of volcanoes. Their on Kamchatka 169, of which 28 are active. Here you can, coming out on the plain to see in the distance steaming mounds of snow. Earthquakes here - more than common, swaying to the Earth in 3-4 local people did not react. Big deal, earthquake, registering hundreds of them here in a year.

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