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The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The perfect place for Ethno Tourism

 
    The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Population: 958,528 (2010 Census), consisting mainly of ethnic Yakuts and Russians.

    Comprising half of the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi) and the eighth largest territory in the world, if the federal subjects of Russia were compared with other countries. It is larger than Argentina and just smaller than India which covers an area of 3,287,240 km2. It has a population of fewer than one million inhabitants. Its capital is the city of Yakutsk. The Sakha Republic is one of the ten autonomous Turkic Republics within the Russian Federation. Yakutia also fosters close cultural, political, economic and industrial relations with the independent Turkic states through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council and the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture.

    Ethno tourism is exploring to the culture and the behaviors of the local people in the foreign countries. This is mainly because to discover the non-scientific gain from the society. People will go the tribal areas in this Ethno tourism. The Ethno tourists will make first contact with the tribes. Sometimes it is associated with two types of issues such as the possible of degradation or destruction of the unique culture or their language.

    Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Island in the far north and is washed by the Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas of the Arctic Ocean. These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the northern hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year. New Siberian Islands are a part of the republic's territory. After Nunavut was separated from Canada's Northwest Territories, Sakha became the largest subnational entity (statoid) in the world, with an area of 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi), slightly smaller than the territory of India (3.3 million km^(2)).

    Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which greatly influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south. Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and almost 90% of the cover is larch.

    Udachnaya pipe is a diamond deposit in the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field in Sakha Republic, Russia. It is an open-pit mine, and is located just outside the Arctic circle at 66°26?N 112°19?E. Udachnaya was discovered on June 15, 1955, just two days after the discovery of the diamond pipe Mir by Soviet geologist Vladimir Shchukin and his team. It is more than 600 metres (1,970 ft) deep, making it the third deepest open-pit mine in the world (after Bingham Canyon Mine and Chuquicamata).

    As of 2010, Udachnaya pipe is controlled by Russian diamond company Alrosa, which planned to halt open-pit mining in favor of underground mining in 2010.

    The Udachnaya kimberlite pipe is one of the main diamond suppliers in Russia. It's situated on the Siberian platform in the central part of the Yakutian diamond province (Fig. 1). At present the exploitation of kimberlite deposit of the Udachnaya pipe is complicated by the influx of chloride magnesium-calcium subpermafrost brines into the quarry. The influx is 75-85 m3/hour. The ground water mineralization reaches 350 g/L, bromine and chlorine contents are hundred and thousand times the acceptable limiting concentrations. Therefore discharge of drainage waters into the river network is prohibited.

    For the last 15 years the open water drainage from the Udachnaya pipe quarry has been used. Brines are disposed into the Cambrian frozen rocks at the depths, which are lower than the local base level of erosion 150-250 m. The acting Octyabrskiy disposal polygon is situated on the watershed 3.5 km to the west from the quarry in the regional fault zone. The frozen strata here are broken into blocks, which is a result of step-like displacement of rock layers.


    A diamond in the eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia.

    Sakha is well endowed with raw materials. The soil contains large reserves of oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold, silver, tin, tungsten and many others. Sakha produces 99% of all Russian diamonds and over 25% of the diamonds mined in the world.

    in 2003 there is sourced unique jewelry diamond weighing 301.55 carats. Over the past 30 years in Russia was found eight of these stones, the last of which - in 1991.

    The first project is the development of indigenous mine open pit to a depth of 400 m was completed in 1970, mining operations at the field began in 1971, and in May 1974 circuitry has been activated ore supply from the quarry "Lucky" on the factory number 11 road .

    In order to engage in the exploitation of deep horizons of the diamond deposits and maintaining capacity Udachninsky GOK in 1987, the project of reconstruction of career "Lucky."

    Operating experience career "Lucky" has shown that for testing of steep, limited in terms of deposits with a depth of 600 m the most optimal set of equipment are in cyclic excavators and road transport.

    In 1976 he commissioned the first place, and in 1978 - the second stage of the largest Russian diamond mining industry in the processing plant number 12. The volume of annual production is 11 million tons of ore.

    In 1987, the mill implemented undrained tailings processing facility, which is a system of water supply treatment plant process water. Commissioning and operation of undrained tailings are an example of consistent technical policy Udachninsky GOK aimed at the protection of natural resources from the negative results of Yakutia industrial activities.

    The festival "Pole of Cold" started Saturday morning in the village of Ulus Tomtor Oymyakonsky blessed with algys. Then the floor was the head of the ulus Mikhail Zakharov and thanked all the organizers and partners of the main spring event Ojmjakon - is the Government of Sakha (Yakutia), the Ministry of Business and Tourism Development of Sakha (Yakutia), the national tourist company "Yakutia" Yakut offroad club "Mammoth" who arrived to cover events media. "We are also pleased that this year the festival has a new partner - the Mayor of Yakutsk, with which we will strengthen partnerships and through other joint projects", - said Mikhail Zakharov. On behalf of the Ministry of Enterprise Development and Tourism Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) was welcomed by the Deputy Minister Alexander Androsov. "Pole of Cold is the calling card of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) worldwide. A festival as one of the brightest tourism events should be conducted with greater scale, involving the participants to remember it and went beyond not only the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), but also the Russian Federation ", - he said.

    For lovers of extreme tourism was developed unique offer "Night in the tent." Spend the night in the Even reindeer herders camp based near the village of Oymyakon Yuchyugey agreed to 18 people. Night, even on a warm day the temperature was cold - minus 35 degrees. However, the warm reception and reindeer skins did not give guests warm. "It was just a freaky night!" - Says a tourist from Yakutsk. The morning of tourists brought the wind on a reindeer sled to the festival site in a. Yuchyugey. There were traditional sports herders and tent-workers at the grand prize - a snowmobile "Buran". Men and women competed in the discus Mouth and reindeer races at various distances.

    Sakha is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the northern hemisphere. Winters here are extremely cold. Some of the lowest natural temperatures ever recorded have been here. The Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold is at Verkhoyansk, where the temperatures reached as low as -67.8 °C (-90.0 °F) in 1892, and at Oymyakon, where the temperatures reached as low as -71.2 °C (-96.2 °F) in 1926.

    Average January temperature: -28 °C (-18 °F) (coast) to -47 °C (-53 °F) (Pole of Cold).
    Average July temperature: +2 °C (36 °F) (coast) to +19 °C (66 °F) (central parts). However, it gets very hot during the day in Yakutsk in July (record = +38.3 °C (100.9 °F)).
    Average annual precipitation: 200 mm (central parts) to 700 mm (mountains of Eastern Sakha).

    Industry generates slightly above 50% of the gross national product of Sakha, stemming primarily from mineral exploitation. Industrial enterprises are concentrated in the capital Yakutsk, as well as in Aldan, Mirny, Neryungri, Pokrovsk, and Udachny. The diamond, gold and tin ore mining industries are the major focus of the economy. Uranium ore is beginning to be mined. Turkic-language Sakha are in politics, government, finance, economy and cattle-breeding (horses and cows for milk and meat). The Paleoasian indigenous peoples are hunters, fishermen, and reindeer herders. As of 2008, Sakha Republic is the 19th most developed federal subject in Russia.

    Water transport ranks first for cargo turnover. There are six river ports, two sea ports (Tiksi and Zelyony Mys). Four shipping companies, including the Arctic Sea Shipping Company, operate in the republic. The republic's main waterway is the Lena River, which links Yakutsk with the rail station of Ust-Kut in Irkutsk Oblast.

    Air transport is the most important for transporting people. Airlines connect the republic with most regions of Russia. Yakutsk Airport has an international terminal.

    Two federal roads pass the republic. They are Yakutsk–Bolshoy Never and Yakutsk–Magadan. However, due to the presence of permafrost, use of asphalt is not practical, and therefore the roads are made of clay. When heavy rains blow over the region, the roads often turn to mud, sometimes stranding hundreds of travellers in the process.

    The Berkakit–Tommot railroad is currently in operation. It links the Baikal Amur Mainline with the industrial centers in South Yakutia. Construction of the Amur-Yakutian Railway continues northward; the plans are for it to reach Yakutsk by 2012.






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