Reserve Pillars in the Krasnoyarsk Krai
"Pillars" - one of the oldest reserves in Russia. The area of its territory - 47,219 hectares.
The reserve is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River near the south-western outskirts of Krasnoyarsk city.
Created in 1925 on the initiative of the inhabitants of the city of Krasnoyarsk, in order to preserve the picturesque area of the barbarous logging and mining of natural stone.
From ancient times, "Pillars" was a place of pilgrimage for rock climbers, who are dubbed "stolbistami." It is interesting that in 1979, according to the survey of viewers Yuri Senkevich program "Club kinoputeshestvennikov" it Krasnoyarsk Pillars were called the eighth wonder of the world, ahead of such world-renowned monuments of Russia as Kizhi "Golden Ring."
The relief of the park there are numerous folds spurs Kuysumskogo (Krasnoyarsk) Range - north-western spur of the Eastern Sayan. From the terrace of the Yenisei River and the boundary of the reserve (Rhee, Bazaikha, Big Sliznevo) mountains, ranging from 200 meters above sea level, gradually reach a depth of 800 meters in the area. Reserve in the north-west to south-east stretches for 34 kilometers, the intricate network of ridges and ravines makes these rugged miles.
Climate "Pillars" is milder than in Krasnoyarsk, in winter a little warmer in the summer - cooler. Snowdrifts reach meters high, are not uncommon in the long rains season.
Feature of the reserve in its location - at the crossroads of the taiga and forest-steppe zone - an adequate variety of natural landscapes. The main tree species are pine, larch, pine, spruce, fir, birch. Grow in the reserve species listed in the Red Book of Russia: shoes genuine and Grandiflora Dactylorhiza May, gnezdotsvetka napellus, orchid shlemonosny, feather feather, and others.
On poles can be found chipmunks, squirrels, deer, roe deer, hare, fox and other mammals. Of birds - from the smallest (nuthatches and titmice), to large - owls and falcons, as well as the "Red Book": longtail lentils, black stork, the steppe eagle, imperial eagle, osprey, eagles, saker falcon, peregrine falcon.
Rock. Terminally stuck in the deep magma stolbinskogo highlands, but about a hundred large and many small rocks (columns), as a result of weathering and leaching, "left" to the surface. For millions of years they have gained fantastic shape, have their own names and are in the taiga pearl necklace.
The reserve is divided into three areas:
zone of strict reserve status (90% of the territory);
The natural conditions of the reserve is determined by its position on the edge of the vast Altai-Sayan mountain region in the contact area of the West Siberian Plain and the Central Siberian Plateau. According to forest growth zoning Krasnoyarsk Territory, the territory belongs to the Pillars Manske-American district of the mountain taiga and bald-taiga pine forests (Forest Types ..., 1980).
Because of the close proximity of the Krasnoyarsk basin combined with mountainous terrain here expressed transitional zone between the forest-steppe and mountain taiga. The upper zone (80% of the total area of the reserve) presents the medium-dark coniferous taiga (fir, spruce, cedar), and the lower - deciduous-coniferous forest lowlands (pine, larch, birch, aspen).
The reserve "Pillars" is a right tributary of the Yenisei rivers as rivers Bazaikha, Mana and Big Sliznevo. In moving from the north to the south of the absolute elevation marks watershed slowly increase from 200 to 832 m n. a. m
The reserve from north-west to south-east arc crosses meandering main watershed. It consists of passing one another in the ranges: Listvyazhnyi, Central and Kaydynskogo. The southernmost of them - Kaydynsky - extends in a south-easterly direction for 11 km. Its height exceeds 700 m (the highest point - 832 meters above sea level). This ridge is a typical plot leveled surface of the ancient peneplain, the north-eastern side of the river falls Bazaikha sloping, wooded slopes, dissected by a number of secondary units. The southern slope of the ridge is steep, heavily eroded, narrow valleys cut by numerous streams and tributaries. Mana shore in some places steep, with rock outcrops.
North Ridge is Kaydynskogo Central (Abataksky) range. Its slightly elongated sub arc extends for 16 km from west to east across the central areas of the reserve. Ridge height ranges from 600 to 700 m on the eastern tip of the towering mountain Abatak (803 meters). The middle part of the range with an extensive, flat, very boggy plateau. At the east end it is divided by narrow river valleys with steep slopes.
The main watershed in the north end Listvyazhnyi ridge extending southward for 12 km. His height does not exceed 700 m, slopes significantly cut by numerous streams. On the watershed area often see small rocks and narrow (1-2 m), scallops, composed of intrusive rocks. On the outskirts of its largest parts towering rock formations, known as the "second pillar", "Fortress" and "fall apart."
Highlights the so-called relief Stolbinskogo Plateau and the waste from a narrow ridges: Kashtachnoy, Takmakovskoy ridge and respond. It is an area of syenite intrusion height of 600-700 m, heavily dissected by streams and rivers. In addition, the relief is complicated by widespread outputs ancient syenitic rocks.
The reserve has a well-developed drainage network (0.63 km/km2), with a total length of 300 km. It is grouped into four different area watersheds: Mana Bazaikha, Big Sliznevo and actually Yenisei.
The main mountain range dividing biased towards Mana. Over 27 km of its coast is the right boundary of the reserve. Here's what he wrote about Manet and its banks A.Ya.Tugarinov: "... The most significant and high-water river that part of the county - Mans. She weaves beautiful mountains of wide ribbon whimsical, sometimes tapering to 2-3 dozen yards, and then rushes rapidly in the steep rocky shores. All for Mana - a rare kaleidoscope of various patterns of Siberian nature, dark and majestic, menacing and wild. Bare black rocks covered with lichen and moss cascades streams, alternating with pine forests, mixed forests, deaf dreamy fir "(Tugarinov, Buturlin, 1911). Within the reserve on Manet has 20 islands and 10 bays, some of them created artificially during the floating timber. Width of the river in some places up to 200 m depth on the shoals of 40-60 cm and 20-30 m in the "pits". Speed of the current average of 5 km / h. The water temperature in the river in winter is close to zero, and in July +17 ° C (on some days up to +25 °). Right-bank tributaries of Mana, with the exception of the Greater and Lesser Indus, short, shallow, have a steep drop and undeveloped valley, often occur in narrow padyah.
Krasnoyarsk residents of more than 150 years attend "Pillars" to leisure, sports. During this time emerged and formed a unique move - stolbizm. Stolbizm ethno-social manifestation played an important role in the formation and history of the reserve.
In fact, with stolbistov and began active amateur and then professional climbing. In 1851, educator Vladimir shelter Kapin Conquering the first pillar, and that time, the famous school of excellence climbers climbers. For example say, here began their glorious way to transcendental heights of famous explorers of many mountains - Krasnoyarsk Abalakovo brothers. And when Nastia Katchalov, clad in sandals, in 1894, saddled elephant - it was a revolution in rock climbing (such wonderful equipment had not previously used, Siberians sandals despised). In what has become a new rock climbing sport and turned into mountain climbing.
In climbing on poles have their cabin. First there was a hut stolbistov third by Post hundred years ago. On Sundays there is going to a lot of people - they climbed over the rocks, wandered through the forest, and at night singing songs around the campfire. In 1906, this little house burned gendarmes - just in case, to the revolutionaries and their sympathizers on the post smaller shastali. Later huts began to appear here and there. The mistress of the hut was considered the company that built it, to monitor the cleanliness and order. The doors are never closed any who came to the pillars could stop for rest and sleep. Nature in the camps and huts carefully preserved: Do not crush the branches, trample down the grass, leave uncollected garbage.
The main attraction of the reserve are the rocks. Common to all the rocks called "Pillars", although their names have all the rocks and even some rocks. Distinguish itself "Pillars" - open to tourists rock, and "Wild Pillars" - rocks, located at the back of the reserve to which access is restricted.
Krasnoyarsk residents of more than 150 years attend "Pillars" to leisure, sports. During that time appeared and formed stolbizm.
Tourist destinations can be divided into three areas.
Fun park "beaver log" chair lift, starting in the valley Bazaikha, runs along the ski slopes, and ends at the top of the ridge, with a magnificent view of the park and many of the rocks. In the vicinity is the largest cave complex in the reserve "Takmak."
"Central Pillars" - an area of 7 km from the border of the reserve, covering an area of about 5x10 km. There are often unique rock: Father, Feathers, Lions Gate, Posts I to IV, and many others. The most popular approaches to the top of the rock have their own names "Blue Coil", "chimney". Stolbisty say that before the revolution, the Bolsheviks wrote in the largest II Pillar word "Freedom" (now it periodically update enthusiasts), and given the complexity of the course to the top of the guardians of the law and could not erase the inscription.
"Chinese wall" is located in the river valley Bazaikha at the foot Takmakov. There are basically stolbisty. Except for the "Chinese wall" in the area are rock Ermak and a group of small rocks "sparrow" - Little, Toad, etc.
At the end of the reserve, immediately adjacent to the city in the valley Bazaikha are several ski slopes. The major ones are "Beaver Log" and "Kashtak."
The role of the reserve in the field of environmental education and environmental education is extremely high. This function is performed mainly tourist-excursion area.
Reserve "Pillars" has always attracted the attention of a unique and unforgettable beauty of the landscape and accessibility. Therefore the major objective of the reserve is the formation and development of ecological awareness of citizens love to his corner of the nature and the desire to preserve it.
State Nature Reserve "Pillars" is on the right bank of the Yenisei River and close to the borders of urban areas. The standard way for visitors - Laletinskaya road. Every day reserve is open to the public. Entrance - free.
It should be accessible to the "Camp" (Sverdlovsk region of Krasnoyarsk) By bus: ¹ 50; ¹ 19; ¹ 78, at the weekend - also number 80.
If the day off - go for the day if people work, travel may not be available. Then from the bus stop "Camp" should go to the other side of the road and walk down the road leading to the park, to a large wooden cascade.
To the boundary of the reserve - cordon Laletin - walk 2 km, rocky area - another 5 km. To avoid getting lost in the "column" in the booth at the cordon Laletin can buy a card and focus on it. Also on the itinerary will be encountered boards with maps schemas. Do not get lost among the many forest trails in the rocky area to help meet tourists. If you have the desire to climb the cliff, start with the available and be careful.
The most popular is a circular route, starting from the first post, passing through rocks Granddaughter, Grandmother, Grandfather, Feathers, Lions Gate, fourth, third and second post and back to the first pillar and the elephant.
You can make use of the reserve for delivery to the protected area on a special bus (operational in February and April, August and October).
Ticket from the street Sverdlovsk (stele park) to the second cross - 30 rubles to the pass - 45 rubles. Bus schedule: Fridays, 10 am to 17 pm, every hour (return bus leaves every half an hour, the last in 17-30). In winter, the bus goes only up to the second cross (playground).
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