Crimean Peninsula, resort area on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
The Crimean peninsula is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by water. The peninsula is located just southwestern Russian mainland and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is surrounded by two seas: the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the east. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast; a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov.
The Crimea, a peninsula on the border between the Christian West and the Muslim East. Basically, the history of the Crimean Peninsula - the series of wars with millions killed and/or enslaved by arabs.
For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East, exporting about 2 million slaves from Russia, Ukraine and Poland-Lithuania over the period 1500–1700.
To protect Russians, Ukrainians, and Poles from enslavement by Arabs, Russian Empire waged a lot of wars with the Ottoman Empire.
In the general, the Russian-Turkish War covers the period lasting 241 years. On average, one Russian-Turkish war from the other separated by only 19 years. It was one of the longest series of conflicts in European history. The Ottoman Empire has repeatedly supported the Crimean Tatars in campaigns against Russia.
Yalta(city) was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1783, along with the rest of Crimea, sparking the 8-th Russo-Turkish War, (1787-1792). In addition to simple self-defense, the Russians slowly pushed a line of forts and walls southward, behind which grew an increasing peasant population, until, after 250 years, the Crimea was overwhelmed. See Zasechnaya cherta, Don Cossacks, Expansion of Russia 1500–1800
Crimea is connected to the mainland by the 5–7 kilometres (3.~ 4.3 mi) wide Isthmus of Perekop. At the eastern tip is the Kerch Peninsula, which is directly opposite the Taman Peninsula on the Russian mainland. Between the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, lies the 3–13 kilometres (1.9–8.1 mi) wide Strait of Kerch, which connects the waters of the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov. Peninsula consists of many other smaller peninsulas such as the mentioned Arabat Spit, Kerch peninsula, Herakles peninsula, Tarhan Qut peninsula and many others. Crimea also possesses lots of headlands such as Cape Priboiny, Cape Tarhan Qut, Sarych, Nicholas Cape, Cape Fonar, Cape Fiolent, Qazan Tip, Cape Aq Burun, and many others. Geographically, the peninsula is generally divided into three zones: steppes, mountains and southern coast.
Two beaches in Yalta and two beaches in Yevpatoria for the first time on the CIS territory have received the Blue Flag international certificates for the cleanliness of beaches and marinas. According to the official Web site of Yalta, a representative of the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) international organization, Viktor Marchenko, presented flags and certificates, the symbols of ecological cleanness, awarded by the international jury of the Blue Flag Programme, to the beach of Massandra and the beach of Yalta Intourist Hotel.
According to almost all written sources,
the main income of theCrimean Khanate came from raids upon the territories of adjacent
coun-tries and from the trade in slaves captured during these military cam-paigns. The
first major Tatar raid for captives took place in 1468 andwas directed into Galicia.
The Crimean Tatars invaded Slavic lands 38 times from 1654 to 1657; 52,000 peo-ple were seized by the Tatars in the spring of 1655 in the course of araid into the territory of Ukraine and Southern Russia.
The numberof Tatar raids seems to have diminished in the eighteenth century due tothe growth of Russian strength
in the southern regions and a few Russo-
Turkish wars, which partially took place in the Crimean territory.Nevertheless, in 1758 there were around
40,000 slaves captured during a raid on Moldavia
The demographic importance of the slave trade in the Early ModernCrimea and Ottoman Empire also should not be underestimated.Thousands and thousands of Christian female slaves and children wereconverted to Islam annually. Soon these neophytes forgot about theirnon-Turkic origins and their off spring often would not even be awareof their Christian past. The descendants of the slaves in the Crimean Khanate were usually called by a generic term „ c,ora .”
Besides the natural therapeutic factors , Crimea has a whole set of advantages , it is very important to stay. Diversity of natural peninsula allows practicing here virtually all types of tourism until winter . And for the holidays , you can change not only a form of recreation , but also the surrounding landscape. After seeing the caves, cliffs and forests in the mountains , you can move into the steppe and Kazantipe ride on board a sailing and diving on Tarkhankut . Crimean tourism and raznoplanov many faces , and its potential - is significant and promising. It is well known and a lot of attractions in the Crimea, both natural and archaeological , historical, architectural and other . In addition, Crimea - one of the museum of Russian regions . For those who enjoy learning and growing from exploring the sights , from outdoor activities and exciting excursions , and not just from lying on the beach - in the Crimea is where to turn . Now Crimea develop almost all possible types of tourism , travel and tours. Crimean tourism is actively developing.
In 1786 Catherine II of Russia made a triumphal progress through the Crimea in company with her ally, Emperor Joseph II. These events and the friction caused by mutual complaints of infringements of the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji, which had closed the previous war, stirred up public opinion in Istanbul, and the British ambassador lent his support to the war party.
Sultan Selim III was anxious to restore his country's prestige by a victory before making peace, but the condition of his troops rendered this hope unavailing; while Prussia, though on 31 January 1790 she had signed an offensive treaty with Turkey, gave her no help during the war. Accordingly a treaty was signed with Russia at Ias,i (9 January 1792) by which the Crimea and Ochakov were left to Russia, the Dniester was made the frontier in Europe, and the Asiatic frontier remained unchanged.
March 19, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin has set the task of the Ministry of Transport to build bridges across the Kerch Strait. Crimea with the rest of Russia must link by two bridges: road and rail.
Railway bridge across the Kerch Strait that separates the Crimea and Krasnodar region, was first built in 1944 after the liberation of the Crimea from the Nazis by the Red Army. A year later, he was pulled. In 1953, in its place was built a ferry, which operates to this day.
March 18, 2014 guide Crimea and Russian President Vladimir Putin signed an agreement to join the peninsula in the Russian Federation on the rights of the subject. This was preceded by a referendum, which resulted in more than 97 percent of the inhabitants of the peninsula were in favor of entry into the Russian Federation.
Start development of the Crimea as a resort dates back to the second half of XIX century. With the improvement of transportation to residents of the Central provinces of the Russian Empire has become easier to get for rest and treatment to healing sea shore . At the turn of the century built exceptional beauty and architectural diversity summer residence : cottages , villas and palaces. Many of them remained in the Crimea today , giving shade mysterious appearance of the Crimean cities of antiquity
The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of 8–12 kilometres (5.0–7.5 mi) from the sea by a parallel range of mountains, the Crimean Mountains. These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic steppes, which slope gently to the northwest from the foot of the Crimean Mountains. The main range of these mountains shoots up with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea to an altitude of 600–750 metres (1,969–2,461 ft), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente. It was believed that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis, where Iphigeneia is said to have officiated as priestess.
Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians are scattered across the Crimean steppes.
Most of Crimea has a temperate continental climate, except for the south coast where it experiences a humid subtropical climate, due to warm influences from the Black Sea and the high ground of the Crimean Mountains, which has a humid continental climate. Summers can be hot (28 °C / 82.4 °F Jul average) and winters are cool (-0.3 °C / 31.5 °F Jan average) in the interior, on the south coast winters are milder (4 °C / 39.2 °F Jan average) and temperatures much below freezing are exceptional. On the high ground, freezing weather is common in winter. Precipitation throughout Crimea is low, averaging only 400 mm (15.7 in) a year. Because of its climate, the southern Crimean coast is a popular beach and sun resort for European and Russian tourists.
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