Klyuchevskaya Sopka, the highest active volcano of Eurasia.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka is a stratovolcano which is the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. Its steep, symmetrical cone towers about 100 kilometres (60 mi) from the Bering Sea. The volcano is part of the natural UNESCO World Heritage Site Volcanoes of Kamchatka.
Highest active volcano in Eastern Asia. Sometimes it is defined as the highest active volcano in the whole Euroasia (due to Damavand not significant eruption in last centuries). It is cone shaped volcano, that can be climbed from all sides. Mostly, climbs are from the pass between Klyuchevskaja nad Kamen from the south. Less popular is west route. The height of Klyuchevskaja is in the range from 4750 to 4850 m according to different sources. However, on the north side of the summit crater it is 4750 m.
Klyuchevskaya's first recorded eruption occurred in 1697, and it has been almost continuously active ever since, as have many of its neighboring volcanoes. First climbed in 1788 by Daniel Gauss and two other members of the Billings Expedition. No other ascents were then recorded until 1931, when several climbers were killed by flying lava on the descent. As similar dangers still exist today, few ascents are made.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka is considered sacred by some indigenous peoples, being viewed by them as the location at which the world was created. Other volcanoes in the region are seen with similar spiritual significance, but Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the most sacred of these. It is said that when the god Volkov created the world, this was the point at which he held it, and so it remains unfinished, unsealed, thus the volcanic activity.
On 15th of October 2012, the volcano erupted. For 300 years, the volcano showed strong activity for more than 50 times. The strongest eruptions were recorded in 1729, 1739g, 1796., 1829, 1853-1854gg, 1896. In the 20th century the increased activity on Kluchevskoy observed in 1944, 1955, 1978 and 1980 he, 187g, 1994. The last eruption took place in 2008.
How to trip There.
A flight to Elizovo (the only one international airport at Kamchatka-peninsula), that is about 30 km away from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij. You can order an accomodation in Elizovo, or you can move to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij or Paratunka. Instead of **, ***, and **** hotels, you can find hostels like accomodation in Severovostok (part of P-K) in "Lyznaja baza Lesnaja", that's the main centre of XC skiing at Kamchatka. Two companies provide bus connection between P-K and Klyuchi several times a week. Tickets are for approximately $25-$35 and it is better to buy them in advance. Time for travel is up to 11 hours, and it depends on ferry over the Kamchatka river near Kozyrevsk. More comfortable possibility for a small group is ordering a van (called at Kamchatka "mikrik") for up to 8 persons with equipment. From Klyuchi, it is about 58 km to the altitude approximately 2000 meter on the north side of the Klyuchevskaja's conus. Last possibililty is a helicopter flight from Kozyrevsk - mostly to the base camp on the south side of volcano.
Both past and current eruption occur in vertex and side craters. Summit crater has a funnel shape, it is completely filled with lava and scoria, and in the center begins to grow new vnutrikraterny cone, which sometimes overlaps the edge of the main crater and increases the height of the volcano. Before 1978, the height of Klyuchevskoy reached 475 m, the diameter of the crater was equal to 650-700 m, depth - 500 m after 1978 is completely filled with lava crater in the middle of it started growing cinder cone. By 1989-1990. cone almost completely blocked the main crater edge and increased the height of the volcano at 100-150 m in the same period of the summit crater on the slopes of the volcano erupted active lava flows. They occupied the lower volcano-tectonic troughs (Krestovsky - in the north-west, Kozyrevsky - the western and Apahonchichevsky - in the south-eastern slopes) and down to the bottom in the form of hot avalanches and mud flows. On the slopes of the volcano, at different levels in height, broke side craters (Piip 1966, H = 1800-2200 m, the Air Force, 1974, H = 3000 m, 8 March 1980, N = 900 m; predicted, in 1983, H = 2800 m and more. etc.). They broke into a single output and the cracks of different lengths. In addition to the explosion craters and cinder cones, which were formed during the eruption, there were and lava flows. Their length varied from 1-1.5 km to 11 km, as it was at the break Piip. Last, the strongest eruption with a break on the side Klyuchevskoy volcano occurred from 1978 to 1993. Volcanic eruption continues at the present time. The source of his power (magma chambers), a multi-stage and are located at different levels of depth from the surface, presumably from the first up to 70-100 km. Composition of the products - alumina and magnesia basalts.
Klyuchevskoy consists of layers of lava, basalt and andesite-basalt pyroclastic compositions, as well as ice. In this pyroclastic compounds predominate in the structure of the top of the cone.
Klyuchevskaya volcano cone covered barranco, which are grooves, deepening into a cone and mountains stretching from top to bottom. Closer to the base of the volcano and gutters barranco narrow. From the height of 3,0-2,7 km on the slopes of the volcano are numerous cinder cones. They are located at different heights. Most of them are located in the south-eastern and north-eastern slopes.
During the eruption of lava flows down to the foot of the volcano to volcano-tectonic troughs, the largest of which are named. Krestovsky trough located on the northwest slope Kozyrevsky in the western mountains, Apahonchichevsky down the south-east side.
The researchers suggest that the age of the volcano is 6-7 thousand years.
Volcano erupts regularly with a different activity. The strongest vertex eruptions occur every 25 years. Thus there outpouring of lava flows.
The territory is covered at the foot of the Klyuchevskaya volcanic sands, washed "dry rivers".
Klyuchevskaya volcano eruption occurs vezuvialnomu or volcanic type. During explosive volcanic eruptions are of great strength. After the end of the eruption of the lava channel blockage is viscous molten mass. Gas and steam, which is going inside the mountain with the force pushed the cork in the subsequent activation of volcanic processes.
Quick facts about Klyuchevskaya Sopka:
During the summer a helmet is necessity due to the falling of stones and rocks. In summer 2003, one Czech turist was hit to death by stone on the slope of Klyuchevskaja, and several members of rescue team were injured. For winter and spring climbs you need crampoons, ice-axe, avalanche transceiver, snow showel, etc. Helmet is recommendable, but not necessary, as majority of stones and rocks area stabilizated by ice and snow.
Height Klyuchevskaya Sopka the latest data of 4850 m It belongs to a typical stratovolcano, since it has the correct form of the cone and folded layers of rock. Klyuchevskaya towering mountain on the peninsula over the fitted on the ridges other volcanoes. The top of the hill Klyuchevskoy throughout the year covered in snow. On clear days, it can be seen for miles. When a volcano erupts, clubs ash, smoke, gas, climb up to a height of 10-20 km. Settling, ashes spread across half the globe of the earth.
According to the observations Kanchadalov (local population) volcano emits ash into the sky pillars 2-3 times a year, and the flames emanating from the crater, is seen during the week. There were cases, for example in 1727 1731gg when the fire is not lost for three consecutive years.
An interesting fact is that different sources indicate unequal height of the volcano. Virtually all common atlases figure Encyclopedia 4688 m altitude 4,750 m point. You can meet and 4649m. Contemporary sources indicate the height of 4850 m Klyuchevskoi Conflicting information due to the fact that the volcano during its existence has been active as a result of which the cone is growing in breadth and upwards. This results in the formation of the crater of the volcano. Diameter crater Klyuchevskaya volcano is 550-600m. During the eruption changes the shape and size of the cavity of the crater.
Klyuchevskoy except the summit crater has 90 side. The appearance of the crater by-31 recorded in historical time and remember this the locals.
Klyuchevskoi diameter at the base is 15 km.
You can camp where you want - tent, digging bivouac or snow caves. Moreover, there are several volcanologist's huts/bases that can be used. For a pity, most of them are partly of fully destroyed.
The obvious plcae to put up a base camp from S is in the pass between Kamen and Klyuchevskaya. From here it is possible to climb both peaks. Getting to the pass might be a hassle either if you approach from NW or SE. From NW you have to negotiate a huge dirty glacier and from SE it is a long ascend in deep soft snow. Both approaces are beautiful hikes.by JXM
Definately bring a multifuel stove and be prepared to clean it a lot. The fuel obtained in Petropavlovsk is kerosene or diesel, none of them very clean. It is impossible to get gas cannisters at Kamchatka.by JXM
By the way, camping gas canisters can be bought in the outdoor shop "Red-Fox" next to the supermarket "Samsa". Fuel is also OK with stoves like MSR Expedition and MSR Dragoon Fly.
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