Lakes Peipus, Peipsi/Chudskoe, Pihkva/Pskovskoe, Teploe. The lake is the fifth largest in Europe
The lake is the fifth largest in Europe after Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in Russia north of St. Petersburg, Lake Va"nern in Sweden, and Lake Saimaa in Finland.
Lake Peipus is a remnant of a bigger body of water which existed in this area during an Ice Age. It covers 3,555 km2, and has an average depth of 7.1 m, the deepest point being 15 m. The lake has several islands and consists of 3 parts:
Lake Peipsi/Chudskoe (Estonian: Peipsi ja"rv, Russian: ×óäñêîå îçåðî) is the northern part of the lake with the area of 2611 km2 (73%).
Lake Pihkva/Pskovskoe (Estonian: Pihkva ja"rv, Russian: Ïñêîâñêîå îçåðî) is the southern part of the lake (area 708 km2 or 20%).
Lake La"mmija"rv/Teploe (Estonian: La"mmija"rv, Russian: Ò¸ïëîå îçåðî) is the sound connecting both parts of the lake (area 236 km2 or 7%).
The lake is used for fishing and recreation, but suffered from some environmental degradation from Soviet era agriculture. Some 30 rivers and streams discharge into Lake Peipus. The largest rivers are the Emajo~gi and the Velikaya River. The lake is drained by the Narva River.
In 1242, the lake was the site of the Battle on the Ice (Estonian: Ja"a"lahing) between the Teutonic Knights and Novgorodians under Alexander Nevsky.
The lake is a remnant of a larger body of water which existed in this area during an Ice Age. In the Paleozoic Era, 300–400 million years ago, the entire territory of the modern Gulf of Finland was covered by a sea. Its modern relief was formed as a result of glacier activities, the last of which, the Weichselian glaciation, ended about 12,000 years ago.
Summer lasts an average of 130 days, moderately warm, with short and intense rains. The hottest month - July. The water temperature can reach 20-25 ° C. Due to the small depth and the flat bottom of the lake is well mixed and heated, which favors the active development of forage fish stock - plankton and benthos.
Autumn cloudy and rainy, especially in November, when the rains are frequent protracted, accompanied by fog "and the snow.
A characteristic feature of the lake are significant seasonal fluctuations in water level. When the water level exceeds the average long-term (30 m above sea level), the lake overflows its banks and floods the surrounding lowland areas. When raising the level of 0.5 m is usually flooded about 180 km2. Old-timers remember the raising of the level in 1956-1957., When it was sunk by a 600 km2 area adjacent to the lake.
The lake has the largest of the large lakes in Northern Europe productive commercial fishing (about 30 kg / ha, on Lake Ladoga, it ranges from 10 to 17 kg / ha).
Lake Peipsi is the fish pond in the North-West of Russia. It is found 42 species of fish, including such fishing as whitebait, whitefish, bream, perch, Peipsi whitefish, pike, roach, perch. Pskov delicacy whitebait was the king's table. Fondness for him was Peter I. Fluctuation in the number of smelt Peipsi depends on the number of competitors: in years of low abundance of competitors smelt catches increase, and, conversely, when the number of competitors (young perch and roach, whitefish) increases sharply, catches smelt reduced by 12-15 times.
Narva hydroelectric construction virtually barred entry into the lake of eternal wanderer - eel, which has no equal in its taste of our fish.
In November 1997, the village Storozhinets Gdov district Pskov region has opened a new fishing port - the largest in the whole Russian coast of the lake.
In 1992, the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Federation have restored the border on Lake Peipsi. This led to the rupture of relations between Russian and Estonian environmental services involved in environmental monitoring at the Peipsi Lake. The recent signing of a bilateral agreement on transboundary waters and the creation of the interstate commission created a solid foundation for the smooth implementation of projects related to the protection and use of natural resources in the catchment area of Lake Peipsi.
The banks of Lake Peipus have smooth contours and form only one large bay – Raskopelsky Bay. The low shores of the lake mostly consist of peat and are bordered by vast lowland and marshes which are flooded in the Spring with the flooding area reaching up to 1000 km2. The west bank of the Peipus Lake is high and steep; the west bank of Peipus Lake is low and boggy, and the east bank is more sublime. There are sand dunes and hills, covered with pine forests. Along the sandy shores there is a 200–300 m wide stretch of shallow waters
Today, among the inhabitants of cities, it became fashionable to go on vacation is not in hot countries, to bask in the sun, and in a remote provincial village. This action is called "eco-tourism" and terribly happy)))
The relief of the bottom is uniform and flat, gradually rising near the shores and covered with silt, and in some places with sand. The deepest point of 15.3 m is located in the Teploe Lake, 300 m from the coast.
The lake is well-flowing, with the annual inflow of water equal to about half of the total water volume
The lake water is fresh, with a low transparency of about 2.5 m due to plankton and suspended sediments caused by the river flow. Water currents are weak (5–9 cm/s); they are induced by the wind and stop when it ceases. However, during the spring flood, there is a constant surface current from south to north.
To get to the lake from St. Petersburg is a snap, and a short time: the nearest town to the lake Gdov the roads E20 and Z60 road is about 250 miles and takes about 3 hours. From Pskov Chud is about a half-hour drive, depending on the kind of hostel for the rest you have chosen (the shuttle or taxi).
In addition, from St. Petersburg to Tschudi buses ¹ 994 Saint Petersburg - Pskov from the bus at the station. m "Ligovsky" (Bypass Canal Embankment, 36). The bus departs daily at 15:30 and is approximately 5 hours to stop, which is next to the cottage complex "Peipsi farmstead." Or should take the train to the Baltic Railway Station in St. Petersburg (departure at 7:05 am) to the station Gdov (arriving at 12:19), from which a shuttle service to various tourist facilities, and shuttle taxi. Return train leaves Gdov at 12:45 and arrives at the Baltic Railway Station at 18:02.
Sandy beaches on the lake, very comfortable. But it should be noted that the most beautiful is the Estonian coast, this beach Kauksi, known not only for its picturesque, but the "singing" sand.
On the lake many resorts and tourist centers and camps. All of them are in steady demand in the summer months: a beautiful country and a healthy environment to the main causes. In winter, many of them are closed.
The largest city on the Russian's bank the Gdov (of the attractions here Reigning Dame Cathedral and the Kremlin Gdov, first mentioned in chronicles in 1323 and who had at one time an important defensive value). At 71 km away is the mares mound, and it is the famous "Raven Stone," with him Alexander Nevsky led Russian forces during the Ice. However, there are other versions of the location of the stone.
Samolva The village has a museum, which exhibits tell the story of how the expedition of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR to seek revenge on the Ice. Charts, maps, research reports justifying the search direction, unique photos are of great interest to anyone interested in the history of Russia.
Domozhirka The village, which is near the lake, you can see the church of the Holy Trinity, built here in the 15th century, interest Peter and Paul Church in the village Vetvenik, Church of the Intercession in the village lake and the church of St. Nicholas in Remde.
The ecological condition of the lake basin is, in general, satisfactory – water is mostly of grades I and II (clean), and is of grade III in some rivers due to the high content of phosphorus. The water condition of the rivers has improved since 2001–2007, but there is an increase in population of blue-green algae. The main problem of Lake Peipus is its eutrophication.
Fish stocks in the lake are quite large, they come here for bream, pike, perch, burbot, ruff and roaches. A set of fairly diverse, but conventional. You can also catch bream, whitefish, whitefish or rudd. In general, self fisherman hurt.
In total, the lake is more than 40 species of fish, it is considered the fish pond north-west Russia. This factor, as well as the proximity of the lake to the cities and picturesque beaches make it popular among fans of fishing, including ice.
One of the most attractive home on the shore of Lake Peipsi is "Chud Coaching Inn" - recreation, which included 47 houses in four different categories, restaurant "Bear", sanitary and economic unit, a meeting room, free parking. Each cottage, regardless of category, has a terrace with a beautiful view of the lake. Gated development situated directly on the lake, at the entrance to the village Spitsin, which is 90 km from Pskov.
Because of the shallow depth, the lake quickly warms up and cools down. Water temperature reaches 25–26 °C in July. The lakes freeze in late November – early December and thaws in late April – early May, first lakes Teploe and Pihkva and then lake Peipus.
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