Lake Ladoga. The largest lake in Europe.
The lake has an average surface area of 17,891 km^(2) (excluding the islands). Its north-to-south length is 219 km and its average width is 83 km; the average depth is 51 m, although it reaches a maximum of 230 m in the north-western part. Basin area: 276,000 km^(2), volume: 837 km^(3) (earlier estimated as 908 km^(3));. There are around 660 islands, with a total area of about 435 km^(2). Ladoga is, on average, 5 m above sea level. Most of the islands, including the famous Valaam archipelago, Kilpola and Konevets, are situated in the northwest of the lake.
Separated from the Baltic Sea by the Karelian Isthmus, it drains into the Gulf of Finland via the Neva River.
The basin of Lake Ladoga includes about 50,000 lakes and 3,500 rivers longer than 10 km. About 85% of the water income is due to tributaries, 13% is due to precipitation, and 2% is due to underground waters.
For all the Great Lakes except Peipsi, Lake Ladoga is closing. Therefore, it is very large pool 258.6 km2. (Smith and Kirillov, 1966). In this basin, about 50,000 smaller lakes, many wetlands and rivers 3500 (longer than 10km each), for a total length of about 45,000 km of rivers (Nezhihovsky, 1955). Swamps and lakes in the basin complex regulate runoff into Lake Ladoga and the water regime. River, passing through intermediate lake, leave them a lot of portable suspended mineral particles and reach Ladoga with significantly clarified water. River floods spread on the lakes.
Neva not become shallow or what time of year, and it is no flood. Fluctuations in the river level depends mainly on the tide ebbs and winds. With sleeves winds blowing down the river, the water level can fall to 1 meter, with the surge winds from the Gulf level rises sometimes to a dangerous size, and Leningrad Floods. Neva is original not only for its affluent and their hydrological regime. Unlike normal river it has no real river terraces, there is no real delta. River deltas usually result from deposition in the mouth of the river of the sediment, which carries the river. But in the Neva River, which follows from the huge sump, which is Lake Ladoga, very little sediment. Consequently, the deposition of silt at the mouth of the Neva could not lead to the formation of the delta in the usual way.
And Neva delta, consisting of 101 islands and an area of 83km2. Arose otherwise. Baltic Sea was once more extensive than it is now. Reduced in volume and retreating to the west of the mouth of the Neva River, is being drained coastal shallows, turning them into islands. Neva water flowed between the islands, and the river flows into the sea was not one, as before, and several branches. And received a "delta". It was formed about 2000 years ago.
As already noted, the northern part of Lake Ladoga lies on the Baltic crystalline shield, the south - on the Russian platform. The southern border of the shield in the areas closest to Lake Ladoga is approximately along the line Vyborg - Priozersk - estuary. Vidlitsa - source p. Svir.
Ancient rocks that form the Baltic Shield, go to the surface, being covered in places with a thin (a few meters) layer of unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Archean rocks of the main place in the structure of the board is occupied by different granites, migmatites, gneisses, schists. Gneisses, schists, quartzites, sandstones, conglomerates, crystalline and dolomitic limestone, and tuffaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks form a complex Proterozoic.
For igneous rocks of the same age are intrusions of gabbro, diabase and gabbro-diabase. In the north-western and north-eastern coasts of Lake Ladoga, there are numerous outlets migmatites, gneisses, schists, granites, rappakivi, Valaam, and a group of islands and Mantsinsari Lunkulansari composed of olivine diabase.
12 km. from its mouth, 128 km. from St. Petersburg. It covers 12 centuries of national history. Even now, the village has about 160 monuments of architecture, art and archeology: ancient monasteries, churches, bell towers, houses, barns, ancient burial mounds. They are surrounded by woods, settlements, burial mounds, majestic mounds - hills.
The name comes from the Finnish Ladoga Alodejogi - lower river, ie to the bottom of the river rapids. In a broad sense, this could be referred to all the lower Povolhove where no later VII - VIII centuries there was the first time.The Russia. And Ladoga, perhaps the only large settlement in the north of Eastern Europe, has become the center of predgosudarstvennoe education.
Located at the intersection of sea and river routes, Ladoga was a place of contact of many cultures, affecting the development of crafts and scope of their market place. From the West were brought here weaponry, jewelery, glass cups, fabric and amber. From the East brought patterned belt, a necklace of rock crystal and carnelian, cowrie shells, gear for riders and horses, brocade and spices, luxuries and silver coins - dirhams. The flow of Arab silver attracted to Ladoga Vikings, making it a gateway for them to distant and fabulously rich countries of the East.
That's a Ladoga and was designed to protect against the Vikings came from Scandinavia noble Rurik. Here he came to the princely throne, beginning the Rurik dynasty, which ruled Russia until the end of the XVI century.
However, the 1st capital of Russia Staraya Ladoga dubbed enthusiasts headed by Professor AN Kirpichnikov long Staroladozhsky digging the ground. In fact, has not been proved whether the Russian land Rurik. And I certainly never Ladoga was the capital of Russia. Because Russia at that time, in the IX century, did not exist. Well this does not make the charm of Staraya Ladoga.
A study of the logs used in construction of the city, 753-year suspended sentence has been called the foundation of Ladoga. A thousand years ago it was a thriving port city, transit point, which straddles northern precious furs, weapons, fabrics, jewelry ...
To the south of the Baltic Shield are exposed on the surface in the area of Lake Ladoga Early Cambrian deposits of the Russian platform, which, in contrast to the shield, in Paleozoic time repeatedly covered by sea. Cambrian strata represented by two complexes: Valdai, developed over the place and made up of brightly colored sandstone and thin-bedded shale, and the Baltic, stacked sandstones, sands and blue plastic clay, fine-grained and so bold that they are sometimes used instead of soap for washing clothes.
The Karelian Isthmus Baltic complex, no, he is only in the south-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga. The thickness of the cover of unconsolidated Quaternary sediments in Ladoga part of the Russian platform in the tens of meters.
The surface of the crystalline basement, naked on the Baltic Shield and gradually disappearing to the south and east by Paleozoic sediments of the Russian Platform (in the delta of the Neva River at a depth of 200m, in southern Ladoga - 300-400 m), very rough, and she split cracks and breaks into separate tabs and Depression. In these tectonic depressions, called grabens, and depression are Ladoga and Onega lakes. Protrusions and depressions extend relief within the shield completely straight for miles to the north-west to south-east or north to south.
The straightness of the relief formation and drainage alone suggests that these forms are created tectonics, internal forces of the Earth. The longer these formations, the more valid the assumption of tectonic origin of them, as the exogenous factors, because of their large number and variability, to create the straight length of several kilometers can not.
The difference in the geological structure of the different parts of the basin of Lake Ladoga is reflected in the structure of the lake basin. Thus, the relief of the northern part of the valley as it repeats the topography adjacent land and consists of deep-sea trenches, alternating with more shallow areas. Dominated by the depth of over 100m.
Here, mostly near the coast, concentrated and deep depression. To the west of Balaam is the deepest part of the lake (230m). The depth of depression against Kurkiyokskih archipelago 220m, against Priozersk and Sortavala archipelago 150m, 140m and against Pitka"ranta near Skerries Impilahti 120m.
In the southern part of the lake bottom smoother, depth gradually decreasing from 100 m to 10 m in the north and less in the south (in the Gulf Petrokrepost an average depth ranging from 3 to 7 feet). There are many sandy and rocky spits and shoals, and clusters of boulders at the bottom (Davydov, 1968).
In the Middle Ages, the lake formed a vital part of the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks, with the Norse emporium at Staraya Ladoga defending the mouth of the Volkhov since the 8th century. In the course of the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, the area was disputed between the Novgorod Republic and Sweden. In the early 14th century, the fortresses of Korela (Kexholm) and Oreshek (No"teborg) were established along the banks of the lake.
Lake Ladoga (in the Chronicle of Nestor in 1113 - "The Great Lake Nebo") contracts in Novgorod the Great, with the Hanseatic cities called Aldea, Aldag, Aldoga and only record in 1280 for the first time it is called "Ladoga".
Even in the VIII. Lake Ladoga was a part of the water trade route "from the Varangians to the Greeks," so Novgorod for centuries had on Ladoga not only a trade, but the navy. Apparently, even at this time began the first attempts to study the lake and making navigation descriptions Novgorod "trade in human beings." Geographical information from them in different ways to hit Western European cartographers.
During the Ingrian War, a fraction of the Ladoga coast was occupied by Sweden. In 1617, by the Treaty of Stolbovo, the northern and western coast was ceded by Russia to Sweden. In 1721, after the Great Northern War, it was restituted to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad. Later, in 1812 – 1940 the lake was shared between Finland and Russia. According to the conditions of the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty militarization of the lake was severely restricted. However, both Soviet Russia and Finland had flotillas in Ladoga (see also Finnish Ladoga Naval Detachment). After the Winter War (1939–1940) according to the Moscow Peace Treaty, Ladoga, previously shared with Finland, became an internal basin of the Soviet Union. Superior mirage on Lake Ladoga
During the Continuation War (1941–1944) not only Finnish and Soviet, but also German and Italian vessels operated there (see also Naval Detachment K and Regia Marina). Under these circumstances, during much of the Siege of Leningrad (1941 – 1944), Lake Ladoga provided the only access to the besieged city because a section of the eastern shore remained in Soviet hands. Supplies were transported into Leningrad with trucks on winter roads over the ice, the "Road of Life", and by boat in the summer. After World War II, Finland lost the Karelia region to the USSR, and all Finnish citizens were evacuated from the ceded territory. Ladoga became an internal Soviet basin once again. The northern shore, Ladoga Karelia with the town of Sortavala, is now part of the Republic of Karelia. The western shore, Karelian Isthmus, became part of Leningrad Oblast.
Since 1996 the Lake Ladoga Challenge is an annual competition for 4x4 vehicles and ATVs that travels through over 1200 kilometers of the mud, swamp and bog that surround Lake Ladoga.
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