Khanka Lake, is a freshwater lake located on the border between Russia and China.
At its closest point, it is situated 79 kilometres (49 mi) east of the city of Jixi, Heilongjiang. The area of the lake is 4,190 square kilometres (1,620 sq mi), of which 3,030 km2 (1,170 sq mi) (72%) is located in Russia and 1,160 km2 (450 sq mi) (28%) in China.
The lake's average depth is 4.5 metres (15 ft), while its maximum depth is 10.6 m (35 ft). Its average volume is 18.3 cubic kilometres (4.4 cu mi), though it can fill up to 22.6 km3 (5.4 cu mi). The lake belongs to the Ussuri River System, which is part of Amur River System. The maximum monthly mean temperature is 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) (July), while the minimum monthly mean temperature is -19.2 °C (-2.6 °F). Rainfall mainly occurs in summer, reaching 750 millimetres (30 in) annually.
The residence time of Khanka Lake is 9.9 years
The beaches of Lake Hanka mostly sandy. You can fish in the lake in the morning and evening dawn, try ear. With breaks picturesque coastline offers a magnificent panorama of the largest in the Russian Far East, freshwater lake.
The site is located within the ancient lake-alluvial plain, which is divided by low hills and remnant accumulative manes. To the west and east of the plain covered mountain systems. Lake Hanka peculiar perennial cyclical fluctuations in water level. As a result of these fluctuations the water surface area of the lake varies from 501 000 to 394 000 hectares, and the volume of water - from 22.6 to 12.7 km3.
Average annual excess over conventionally adopted a zero mark (66.0 m Baltic alignment) is about 300 cm in the years of maximum lift water level reaches 389 cm (1973), and for the imposition of surges - 430 cm, which leads to disastrous flooding. During regression of the water level does not exceed the average monthly peak of 200 cm water level in the lake and adjacent waters coincides with the peak rainfall. Water withdrawals for irrigation of rice fields during periods of regression complicate the environment: a sharp (5-10) reduced the number of nesting birds nesting and breeding success.
Flowing rivers carry into the lake (in estuarine areas) a large number of loose material. In a period of high water rise is an active erosion lowland peat banks and redeposition of organic matter. As a result of the wind-tide process water in the flood waters and shallows constantly muddy. Discharge of water from the rice fields leads to accumulation in the lake and the surrounding waters of soluble fertilizers and pesticides. Special studies of water chemistry in recent years has not been carried out.
Oz.Hanka average depth of 4 m, maximum - 10 m deep flood waters usually do not exceed 1-1.5 m wind-surge water level fluctuations depend on the strength, duration and direction of winds. The total catchment area oz.Hanka - 1,689,000 hectares, including in Russia - 1.537 million hectares. In the Chinese territory much of the watershed belongs to the lake. Hank Small, separated from the main body of water a narrow strip of sand. There is an exchange between the lakes due to seepage, and in wet years they are connected by channels.
Hunk belongs to the basin of the Amur River, which has a free flow through the rivers Sungach and Ussuri. Last river valley now occupied farmland.
Lake Hanka lies in a temperate monsoon climate of the eastern sector of the continent. Climatic conditions in Khanka basin are mainly determined by the monsoon and the local circulation processes. In calm weather gets warm summer depression and winter cold air accumulates. The average July temperature is +20 ° C. Fall of 600 mm of rain per year, of which 500 mm - in the summer. The frost-free period - 150 days, the snow cover the average power of 30 cm remains about 100 days. Transition average daily temperature +5 ° C to celebrate May 1 and October 1. Shallow floodplain ponds annually completely frozen.
Soil areas - the bog peat-gley and half-bog soddy podzolic gleyey. The lake bottom is sandy.
Lake Hanka has long been famous for its abundance of fish and shorebirds. One of the ancient names of the lake - "Khankala Omo", this name means "sea bird feathers." In medieval times, the fish of Lake Hanka delivered to the table Jurchen and Chinese emperors. Today the lake is in Kaluga, the weight of which sometimes reaches 600 kilograms.
In 1868, these places visited and described NMPrzhevalsky, in 1902, the first expedition to the lake made Arsenyev. In the 70 years of the twentieth century on the shores of Japanese director Akira Kurosawa made a film "Dersu Uzala" story by VK Arsenyev.
In 1971, according to the Ramsar Convention, Lake Hanka and the surrounding areas are recognized wetland of international importance. In 1990 he organized a nature reserve "Khanka", the youngest in the Primorye Territory. In April 1996, between the governments of Russia and China signed an agreement to establish on the basis Khankaisky Reserve and Chinese reserve "Shinkai-hoo" of the international reserve "Lake Hanka."
Khanka lowlands and the banks of the lake is quite swamped. Ground vegetation is represented by meadows (from wetlands to steppe) and forest-steppe. Special Features Khanka are flooded, covering the water surface for miles.
Wetlands of Lake Hanka - a unique natural complex of rare marsh and meadow plants, which nest and stop to rest during seasonal migrations numerous birds, including many endemic species.
On Lake Hanka recorded 336 bird species, of which 140 species are nesting, 76 species occur in the winter, the rest of the birds are found during seasonal migrations.
On Lake Hanka are found six species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles, including the main "red book" Far turtle.
In the basin of Lake Hanka lives 75 species of fish, of which more than 20 species belong to the fishery: skygazer, Amur catfish, pike, carp, common carp, grass carp, snakehead, carp, Mongolian Krasnoperov.
Lake Xingkai/Khankai natural Reserve has already been brought into an integral strategic system for ecological protection of China, Russia and the whole world. It first signed the word’s wetland protection convention, then signed the Agreement on Lake Xingkai/Khanka in 22nd, April 1996 in Beijing. In 7th March 1997, it was approved to enter into the northeastern crane network. In 1998 it is listed into one of the demonstration engineering regions for biodiversity protection and sustainable utilization of in Chinese wetland by the GEF project. Chinese side.
The lake is an important area for birds, and includes a number of endangered species. In the Neolithic era, there was a well-developed Bohai culture in the area of the Khanka Lake. The National Geographic Channel represented the film named "Secret Forest" as the part of the cycle "Wild Russia" which describes the nature reserves of Ussuri Krai, including Khanka Lake wildlife.
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