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Lake Chany - largest West Siberian lake

 
    Although Lake Chany is not well known outside of Siberia, it is one of the largest lakes in Siberia (located at 5450?N 7740?E). Lake Chany is a shallow, freshwater lake that has a fluctuating water level, which can change from season to season and year to year.

    Lake Chany

    At the time that this picture was taken, the water level in the lake appears to be low, even to the point where the western end and the northeast corner of the lake seem to be separate lakes. A variety of ecosystems that surround the lake include a mixture of wetlands, salt marshes, and a mixture of birch and aspen forests. Lake Chany in particular is critically important for the migratory birds of Siberia.

    Lake Chany

    On the lake about 70 islands, the largest are Amelkina Mane Shuldikov lying, Bear, Cap, Chinyaiha, bird cherry, are rare. Cheremushkin island, mares, Perekopny, Bekarev, Kalinova, Chinyaiha, Shipyagin, Round, Kolotov Kamyshnaya - are natural monuments areas, as they preserved the unique landscapes that are the habitat of rare species of plants and animals.

    Lake Chany

    The lake is 91 kilometers long, 88 kilometers wide. The lake area is variable and currently estimates range is from 1400 to 2000 km ^ (2). The average depth of about 2 meters, the highest - 7 meters.

    Lake Chany

    Vats - undrained salt lake in Russia, located in the Baraba lowland in the Novosibirsk region, the largest lake in Western Siberia.

    The lake is located in the five districts of Novosibirsk region: Zdvinskogo, Baraba, Chany, and Kupinsky Chistoozernoye. Received its name from the word chan (Turkic) - a vessel large.

    Lake Chany

    The lake is a system reaches connected by canals and shallow areas, of which the largest are three: Chinyaihinsky, Taga-interglacials and Yarkovsky of varying salinity, area, depth, soils, food resources.

    Freezes in late October - early November, opened in May.

    Lake Chany
    Satellite's photo.

    On the lake there is local shipping.

    Most of the lake is located in the forest-steppe habitat.

    Lake Chany
    Chany lake is located at an altitude of 106 meters above sea level. The lake is 91 kilometers long, 88 kilometers wide. The lake area is variable and is now according to various estimates range from 1,400 to 2,000 km ^(2). The average depth of about 2 meters. The basin of the lake is flat. The lake is shallow, the depth of 2 meters are 60% of the total area of the lake. The shores of the lake is quite low and very rugged, overgrown with reeds, rushes, sedges and shrubs. Soil is sandy and muddy bottom. The maximum recorded temperature of water in summer - 28,3 C.

    On the lake about 70 islands, the largest are Amelkina Mane Shuldikov lying, Bear, Cap, Chinyaiha, bird cherry, are rare. Cheremushkin island, mares, Perekopny, Bekarev, Kalinova, Chinyaiha, Shipyagin, Round, Kolotov Kamyshnaya - are natural monuments areas, as they preserved the unique landscapes that are the habitat of rare species of plants and animals.

    Among the largest peninsulas - Zelenchak, Kondakov, naked, Vaska, cape Drovnik, Rodyushkin, Kvashnin Maliniha, Dark, Tyumen. Islands and peninsulas of the lake has a characteristic feature - most of them are elongated from southwest to northeast. Their specific location because they are waterlogged mane. Salted lake in the south-eastern part of the salinity of the lake below. Dining Lake mostly snow, the lake is fed by rivers and Kargath Chulym (flows into small tubs). Earlier in the lake flows into the river Sarayka connecting it to Lake Sartlan. Average annual total runoff Chulym and Kargath not very significant and is 0.44 km ^(3), while wastewater characterized by high volatility. Lake Chany - unique reservoir in Western Siberia. The maximum value of total flow was achieved in 1948 - 1.72 km ^(3), minimum - in 1968, when it amounted to 0.013 km ^(3). The inflow of water tends to decrease due to the many dams built on rivers. The lake is connected by canals with more fresh water lakes and small tubs Yarkul.

    The climate in the Lake Chany - continental. The average January temperature is -19,7 C, in July - +18,3 C. The frost-free period lasts 115 to 120 days. The average annual rainfall - 380 mm. Snow depth - 20 -30

    Lake Chany
    In Lake Chany live 16 species of fish. The most numerous in silver carp, perch, carp, ide, perch. The average number have roach, pike, bream. The few species - the golden carp, peled, dace, tench, lake minnow, gudgeon, verkhovka. The main wintering fish - Yarkovsky reach and Lake Yarkul. The most abundant fish in the Yarkovsky Reach - bass. In summer Chinyaihinskom Reach live in significant numbers all major fish fauna in Taga-KASANTZEVO Reach mass species are ide, perch, carp, crucian carp, several smaller numbers of roach and perch. In the winter low water Zamora cause great damage to the number of fish, especially valuable species.

    During periods of low water killed a large number of eggs and young, so hatchery work is needed. Zaryblyaetsya lake regularly, it is held commercial breeding fish. First-breeding operation in the lake began in 1926 - 1927 years. Were initially acclimated carp, carp, bream. Was later held acclimatization perch peled, tench, white salmon, whitefish, cisco Baikal, the stocking of the lake accidentally infused verkhovka. The first attempts to acclimatize not achieved great success, increasing catches were reported. Later acclimatization perch has been successful, and it reached a large size. The bulk of bream dies in water scarcity occurs when Zamora, so its size has not reached the level of fishing. Currently, reliable information about the presence of Lake Baikal cisco and inconnu not. The failure to omul because for this type of lake fish is shallow. Acclimatization peled failed due to high salinity, currently under commercial breeding peled when larvae are grown in fish farms, are available in the lake, and the fish grow to commercial size. In addition, many of the larvae cisco, whitefish, and inconnu peled was eating away perch, roach, ide.

    In 1976, the Chulym River hatchery was built "Uryumsky", which includes addressing the growing and stocking the lake Chany juvenile carp. Actively stocking fingerlings weighing 25 - 80 grams led to the fact that the lake formed by numerous self-reproducing population of carp. According to the observations of the Novosibirsk Branch "Sibrybniiproekt" in 1993 by the number of carp fingerlings appeared ahead of native species of fish - roach, ide and perch. The economic crisis of the 1990s led to the fact that the scale of the lake stocking nursery has declined significantly.

    Lake Chany
    Fish stocks are now compared to XIX century greatly impoverished. First reduction of catches of pike, carp and bass were recorded at the end of XIX century: "... before abounded fishes, there were carried out up to pounds of weight pike, carp and perch from 5 to 7 - 8 p. Now, for reasons unknown, his wealth scantily fish and most fish are crushed ". In the XX century, in times of high water fish catches reached 10,000 tons per year, low flow decreased to 200 tonnes per year. During periods of low water based commercial catches hold low-value fish. Among the main reasons for the reduction of catches are called as follows:


    The decline and sharp fluctuations in water level.
    Winter Zamora.
    Freezing to the bottom of a large part (25%) of the lake in winter.
    Reducing stocking.
    Anthropogenic influence. The lake is officially permitted netting when purchasing a license. Quotas for fishing is 2800 tons per year. Ichthyologists believe that actual catches much higher than the official statistics, in addition, in recent years, large-scale building and poaching.
    The increasing concentration of phenols, petroleum products, nitrogen compounds and other substances.
    High salinity water in the lake. The highest salinity recorded in Chinyaihinskom (6 g / dm ^(3)) and the Yarkovsky (2.5 g / dm ^(3)) reaches.

    At the end of XX century in the shape of the lake got a goldfish called Amur carp. Amur carp a few years multiplied rapidly, almost supplanting of the lake did not stand the competition with him the golden carp, and is currently ranked first in the catches.

    Lake Chany
    Part of the perch population is infected gill mites. Opisthorchiasis in fish of Lake Chany is not marked.

    The lake is important for the migration of many species of aquatic birds: ducks, gulls, geese, shorebirds, swans, terns, coots, peganok. Among the rare species of birds on the lake marked white-headed duck, red-breasted goose, Asian Dowitcher, sociable plover, avocet, Stilt, black-headed gull, Caspian tern, steppe tirkushka, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, the Dalmatian Pelican. On the lake there are significant concentrations of waterfowl during migration and molting. During the migration and nesting on the lake there are up to 220 species of birds , according to other sources - up to 300 species of birds. In the 1970s, an estimated ornithologists Lake for the season before, to 1.5 million waterfowl. During the XX century there steady decline in the number of waterfowl because of mass destruction. For example, in 1930, the system Chany lake was collected 9 million eggs and even more ruined. At the beginning of XXI century the main human factors that reduce the number of birds were destroying nests during grazing in the coastal part of the lake, the death of the birds in fishing nets.

    Lake Chany

    Of mammals inhabit the lake muskrat, in forest-steppe lands to mark the lake are found foxes, hares, deer, badgers, Korsakov, speakers.

    The lake is rich in plankton, as zooplankton and phytoplankton. As of 1983 the lake found 404 species of algae. In Chinyaihinskom Reach was a high biomass of algae, phytoplankton development strong negative impact on the fish population. Species zoobenthos diversity is small, dominated by chironomids, also found mussels, caddisflies, kulitsidy, gammarids, oligochaetes, dragonflies, mayflies.

    Lake Chany

    On the shores and islands of Lake grow birch, cherry, cranberry, aspen, hawthorn, wild rose, black currant, raspberry, fern. In the 1940s, on the north shore of the lake was planted oak and pine forest. On some islands, for example, on the island Uzkoredky grow and bloom wild peonies.

    Lake Chany

    At the end of XIX century on the banks of the lake were 17 settlements, 15 of which belonged to Kainsk county, and 2 - to Barnaul. Today, on the shores of the lake is 12 villages. None of the locations on the lake does not have the status of a city or urban settlement. On the territory of the district there are Barabinskyi Belovo Kazantsev Kvashnin Novoyarkovo, Staroyarkovo, Behten, in Kupinsky area - Novorozino, Shaitik, Yarkul, Tyumenka, in Chany district - Novoyablonovka and Tagan. The largest in population of the village - Kuznetsova, Kvashnin and Yarkul. Reduction in the number of settlements caused by the fact that some of the village, there were 100 years ago, the lake is located from it at a distance, for example, the village Yudino Chistoozernoye district, which previously was located on the banks of the dried Yudinskogo reach. At the beginning of XX century on some of the islands were ancient settlements, for example, on Bear Island. In the mid XX century, the island was farmland, which grew watermelons. There were also rural settlement on the island of Tyumen, but now because of the drying up of the lake island connected to the mainland. Today, none of the permanent population of the islands do not.

    Lake Chany

    The lake has a large fishery value. The surrounding land is used for hay and grazing. Water from the lake is used for technical purposes.

    Lake Chany

    Lake Chany is state-owned. Part of the coastal area is taken by commercial organizations for long term rent

    Since 1971, the lake is located research facilities of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which conducted the study of different components of the ecosystem of the lake. At the beginning of XXI century, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) provided a grant the hydrological, hydrochemical and hydrobiological studies. From 1995 to 1997, in the southwestern part of the lake excavated sites, dating from VI-VII millennium BC. e. In view of the nature of the terrain, the cultural layers lie at a depth of only 1 m Lake Chany

    Chany Lake is a popular vacation destination, including winter and summer fishing. The abundance of water birds attracted a large number of hunters. On the lake built recreation centers, organizes special tours. Lake Chany is some danger for tourists, because in bad weather it can be very high waves, and there were cases of deaths emerged at a time on the boat in the lake.






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