Poklonnaya Hill, one of the highest Column of the World. War museum & Victory Park.
The Museum of the Great Patriotic War is a history museum located in Moscow, Russia, at Poklonnaya Hill.
Obelisk of special strength steel weighing 1,000 tons and a height of 141.8 meters (10 cm for every day of the war), covered with bronze reliefs. At an altitude of 122 meters to the stele mounted 25-ton bronze statue of the goddess of victory Nike. At the foot of the obelisk on a granite podium, a statue of St. George, who spear struck the snake - a symbol of the victory of good over evil. Opened May 9, 1995 in the Memorial of Victory.
Historically, the hill had great strategic importance, as it commanded the best view of the Russian capital. Its name is derived from the Russian for "to bow down", as everyone approaching the capital from the west was expected to do homage here. In 1812, it was the spot where Napoleon in vain expected the keys to the Kremlin to be brought to him by Russians.
In the 1960s, the Soviet authorities decided to put the area to use as an open-air museum dedicated to the Russian victory over Napoleon. The New Triumphal Arch, erected in wood in 1814 and in marble in 1827 to a design by Osip Bove, was relocated and reconstructed here in 1968. A loghouse, where Kutuzov presided over the Fili conference which decided to abandon Moscow to the enemy, was designated a national monument. The huge panorama "Battle of Borodino" by Franz Roubaud (1910–12) was installed here in 1962. A monument to Kutuzov was opened in 1973.
The Victory Park and the Square of Victors are important parts of the outdoor museum. In the 1990s an obelisk was added with a statue of Nike and a monument of St George slaying the dragon, both designed by Zurab Tsereteli. The obelisk's height is exactly 141,8 meters, which is 10 cm for every day of the War. A golden-domed Orthodox church was erected on the hilltop in 1993-95, followed by a memorial mosque and the Holocaust Memorial Synagogue.
At the 60th V-day celebrations in 2005, President Vladimir Putin inaugurated 15 extravagant bronze columns, symbolizing main fronts and navies of the Red Army during the World War II.
During the existence of the museum in its large collection of objects that tell about the Great Patriotic War: weapons, military equipment, uniforms, awards, photographs, newsreels, wartime documents, letters from the front, works of art: paintings, sculptures, drawings and posters. The scientific library of the museum has more than 50,000 publications, has a department of rare books. The museum has a permanent exhibition "Road to Victory", an art gallery, six dioramas on the major battles of the war. H park located exhibition of military equipment and fortifications during the war. Since the opening of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. visited by millions of visitors.
The exposition hall opens Warlords, which houses gallery of the Order of the "Victory" - the highest military order established by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on November 8, 1943, awarded to the senior command staff person for the successful conduct of military operations on the scale of one or more fronts .
Order the "Victory" Generalissimo of the Soviet Union awarded IV Stalin (twice), Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Beetles (twice), AM Wasilewski (twice), LA Dialects, IS Konev, RI Malinowski, K. Meretskov, KK Rokossovsky, SK Tymoshenko, FI Tolbukhin Army General AI Antonov. For his contribution to the victory over Nazi Germany highest military order of the USSR "Victory" was awarded to U.S. Army General Dwight David Eisenhower, feldhal Rola-Zymierski, Marshal Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia.
Bronze busts of the Soviet of the Order of the "Victory" by Zurab Tsereteli installed around the perimeter of the Hall of the commander.
The bust of the Order of "Victory" in stylized heraldic shields bear images of military orders of the Russian and Soviet armies.
The bust of the Order of "Victory" in stylized heraldic shields bear images of military orders of the Russian and Soviet Army.
The idea of the succession of armies, generations and military glory of Russia is reflected in the fact that in the Hall of the generals along the wall to the right busts of heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812: Field-Marshal MI Kutuzov (1745-1813) - sculptor VP Pereyaslavets, Copper cavalry general, Ataman of the Don M. Platov (1751-1818) - sculptor NA Ivanov, bronze. To the left of the entrance the wall busts of outstanding general Russian Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov (1730-1800) - sculptor M. Pereyaslavets, copper, General of Infantry Prince Pyotr Bagration (1765-1812) - sculptor Alexander Deysadze, bronze, General of Cavalry NN Rajewski (1771-1829), sculptor NA Ivanov, bronze, infantry general DS Dokhturov (1756-1816) - sculptor Leo Matyushin, bronze.
In the center of the grand staircase leading to the Hall of Fame, located artistic decorative panels of colored metal "Soldier's road of glory" (artist Zurab Tsereteli). Panels decorated with symbolic models of weapons, soldiers' helmets, a view of the battles of World War II. At the beginning and the center panel mounted lamps in the form of memorial candles, reminiscent of the fallen defenders of the fatherland. Decorative panel frame interleaved branches of oak and laurel, cast ferrous metal.
At the top of the grand staircase to the Hall of Fame, is artistic and decorative composition "Shield and Sword of Victory." In the illuminated display case are decorative shield, eq and scabbard, donated to the museum by the Government of the Russian Federation on the 50th anniversary of the Victory. The sword is made of the famous Zlatoust steel. Wares decorated and richly decorated with colored metals and Ural gems: topaz, quartz, garnet, beryl, aquamarine, citrine.
Victory Park outdoor deployed a unique exhibition of equipment and engineering and fortifications. There are more than 300 models of heavy equipment of the USSR and its allies, Germany and its allies, who participated in the battles.
First Poklonnaya Hill is mentioned in documents of the 16th century, when it was called a little differently - Poklonnaya Hill in Smolensk road. At that time the land was owned by the patriarchal Trinity - Golenishtchev village. Origin and meaning of the name is quite prosaic, but is associated with interesting events in the life of Moscow and the Russian state.
On Poklonnaya stayed travelers to here with a sublime place to survey the panorama of the city and to worship him. On Poklonnaya Hill met and escorted VIPs, foreign embassies, greeted with a greeting and a bow in a special sign of respect for these people. It was here in 1812, Napoleon waited in vain keys from Moscow. After Poklonnaya Hill during World War went to the front shelf of the Red Army. Hence arriving considered city. Admired his view, as if bowing to him.
The question of creating a memorial on the site of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. resolved for many years. Bookmark monument on Poklonnaya Hill in February 1958, and in 1995, the 50th anniversary of the victory over fascism, the grand opening of the memorial complex at Poklonnaya Hill. Characteristically, a memorial was not an ordinary performance DIRECTIVE sovereign - the people wanted to have a memorial in Moscow about the war. In the 50s there was a movement of veterans, young people supported him, the construction of the Victory Monument people gathered almost 200 million rubles - in the old prices.
Today in Poklonnaya mountain located Victory Park, the center of which is the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945. Victory Park has become a symbol of the Russian people to the worship of the heroes who died for their country during the war.
In addition to the memorial complex is also a beautiful park, where the daily come to rest hundreds of Muscovites. Park pleases the eye amazing flower beds, which are stylistically in tune with the overall theme of the memorial complex.
Since the 1980s the hill also includes the monumental museum to the Soviet victory in the Great Patriotic War. The main building of the museum was constructed between 1983 and 1995. 'Hall of glory' holds reliefs of the 12 soviet Hero Cities, on its marmor walls are inscribed the names of several thousand Heroes of the Soviet Union, awarded during the war. 'Hall of remembrance' downstairs contains 'Books of remembrance' with the names of more than 26 million soviet war dead.
The Museum of the Great Patriotic War is a history museum located in Moscow at Poklonnaya Gora. The building was designed by architect Anatoly Polyansky. Work on the museum began on March 3, 1986, and the museum was opened to the public on May 9, 1995. The museum features exhibits and memorials concerning World War II, known in Russia as "The Great Patriotic War".
The metal frame is made of a specially designed steel 09G2U, gross weight construction - about 1000 tons. Protection of metal obelisk and shapes made from corrosion by thermal spraying project TSNIIPSK them. NP Melnikova
The monument is a unique structure and, because of complex shape defined architectural design, has an aerodynamic instability. In the process of designing a model of the Monument blown through a wind tunnel of TsAGI, which identified a number of aerodynamic shape parameters.
To prevent exposure to wind oscillations monument is equipped with dynamic damper, the chief of which has a mass of 10 tons and is located behind the sculpture Nicky. Inside the hill on which stands the monument, are office space, which is equipped with a monitoring station construction.
Getting to the Poklonnaya Hill.
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