Moscow Metro, The Most Beautiful Metro Of The Earth.
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast towns of Krasnogorsk and Reutov. Opened in 1935. As of 2013, the Moscow Metro has 188 stations and its route length is 312.9 km. The system is mostly underground, with the deepest section 84 metres (276 ft) at the Park Pobedy station. The Moscow Metro is the world's fourth most heavily used rapid transit system after Tokyo subway, Seoul Metropolitan Subway and Beijing Metro.
The rush hours are to be avoided unless you have to be somewhere at that time. Actually the rush hour is no different than being in the tubes in NYC, it is crowded and bustling. The color codes of the metro lines and the circle lines make it extremely easy to travel.
The Moscow Metro is a state-owned enterprise. Its total length is 312.9 km (194.4 mi) and consists of 12 lines and 188 stations. The average daily passenger traffic is 7 million. Ridership is highest on weekdays (when the Metro carries over 9 million passengers per day) and lower on weekends. Each line is identified according to an alphanumeric index (usually consisting of a number), a name and a colour. Voice announcements refer to the lines by name. A male voice announces the next station when traveling towards the centre of the city, and a female voice when going away from it. On the circle line the clockwise direction has a male announcer for the stations, while the counter-clockwise direction has a female announcer. The lines are also assigned specific colours for maps and signs. Naming by colour is frequent in colloquial usage, except for the very similar shades of green assigned to the Kakhovskaya Line (route 11), the Zamoskvoretskaya Line (route 2), the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line (route 10) and the Butovskaya Line (route L1).
The beauty of the various stations is not to be missed. A very interesting trip on the metro can be done on the "Koltsevaya" line, the circular one. All of the stations reflect the original decoration and architecture style of the metro, and in about one hour you may visit all of the stations. Particularly beautiful are the "Komsomol'skaya", "Kazan'skaya", "Belorusskaya", "Novoslobodskaya" and "Kiyv'skaya" stations. Outside of the Koltsevaya line, some more stations worthy of a visit are "Mayakovskaya", "Baumannskaya" and "Ploschad Revolutsij". The beauty of Mayakovskaya is not obvious until you stand on the platform and look straight up, at the ceiling mozaics overhead. Each mozaic is unique and depicts a "view" of the sky, as if you were outdoors looking skyward. Two of the newest stations are Trubnaya and Sretensky Bulvar. Both are very modern, unique and interesting.
The system operates in an enhanced spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with the majority of rail lines running radially from the centre of Moscow to the outlying areas. The Koltsevaya Line (route 5) forms a 20-kilometre (12 mi)long ring which enables passenger travel between these spokes. Signs showing the stations that can be reached in a given direction are in each station. A complete map is also on each station both inside and outside, and in the trains, but not on the platforms. Most of the stations and lines are underground, but some lines have at-grade and elevated sections. The Filyovskaya Line is notable for being the only line with most of its route at grade.
The variety and styles of metro mean that you have lots to visit. They are well looked after. The bronzes in the metro in Revolutionary Square are superb. You don't often see a women holding a rifle in a bronze.
The Moscow Metro is open from about 5:30 am and until 1:00 am. The precise opening time varies at different stations according to the arrival of the first train, but all stations simultaneously close their entrances at 01:00 for maintenance. The minimum interval between trains is 90 seconds during the morning and evening rush hours.
Among the many things about which I was ignorant prior to my trip to Moscow was the fact that it is home to the world's finest metro. One would presume that Paris or Vienna would be the cities most likely to adorn their public stations so beautifully. But no. Moscow. Each station is a unique architectural achievement, complete with mosaics..
The Moscow Metro is a member of major international transport organizations, among them - the International Association of Public Transport (UITP), the Association of the largest metro systems of the world and the International Association of COMET "Metro", uniting metros and major transport companies in Russia and the CIS countries. Traditionally, the Moscow Metro is represented on all major events held under the auspices of these organizations. In accordance with the long-term agreement on cooperation continues to work closely with the Moscow underground metro systems in Paris, Seoul and the North American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2011 was full of many international events, some of which Moscow subway took an active part. In February, the delegation of the Moscow subway took part in the meeting on the draft of explosives detection STANDEX by NATO (Brussels).
Taking pictures without the use of a tripod, lighting and other permanent fixtures in the Moscow Metro is not prohibited. When taking a picture, is forbidden to be in the way of passenger flow, go beyond the boundary line on the platform, use the flash when taking pictures of the rolling stock in order to avoid dazzling the driver. The photographer should unquestioningly follow instructions metro workers and police.
When in Moscow, you have to ride the metro and see the architectural differences in the stations. Many are gaudy, but most are beautiful. They are "way down" because they were built as bomb shelters by Koba. The trains come every two minutes during the day and every five minutes until 11 pm. The only negative is the subway ride.
The Moscow Metro is probably the only vehicle in the world, who are so interested in tourists as soon as museums and architectural monuments - this is truly a masterpiece of Soviet art that was conceived not as a vehicle, as well as something that has to transform the consciousness of the people, and carry it out the daily routine in the ideological sphere. The history of subway construction began in the thirties, and, paradoxically, the world's first atheist state oriented with a religious heritage of antiquity. So Metro reminds underground complex of temples, in which the believer is transported from one temple to another, or the Roman catacombs, where the early Christians were going, and where there was civilization, replacing antiquity. Moscow and catacombs, decorated with marble and granite, gleaming steel and crystal, were to be the cradle of a new society - socialism construction began under the ground.
The first station of the Moscow Metro - is a strange hybrid of the sanctuaries of the Aztecs and the Greek temples. Instead of the gods in the wall niches with statues of heroes: the armed sailors, soldiers and peasants in sandals made of bronze. Aesthetics subway or in any way the result of creative freedom, it is primarily derived from a complex political considerations. Before the opening of the metro station "revolution", for example, the ideological commission wanted to clean out the statues, as they showed the Soviet man half-bent almost to his knees. Stalin had prevented this by saying that the statues look like live. Bronze idols survived Stalin and the Soviet Union, blew their revolvers, polished by millions of hands, still focused on the crowd.
The Moscow Metro inhabit two kinds of statues writers and poets from the pantheon of Soviet culture and nameless heroes of war and labor. The mosaics on the walls of subway - often abstract geometric patterns, which are woven into the Soviet symbols like the hammer and sickle, or five-pointed star, and they are woven so subtly that turns an amazing effect when you pass by them, to some extent chuvstuesh ideologicheky Rayonism these walls. Sometimes you have to carefully look into them before you'll understand why abstract mosaic awakens thoughts of the hill of the communist idea. Next to the ideology of the ornaments is full of mosaics, crafted with magical characters - the walls are decorated with ancient symbols, kabbalistic motifs, runes, and more.
But some stations deliberately ipolzovat examples of ancient architecture, reminiscent of some of the palace of Knossos with a labyrinth of the Minotaur, and the station "Kropotkin" with its double colonnade like the interior of an Egyptian temple, only that it does not light up the torches and lamps. Officially, you can take pictures only with special permission. The reason for this lies partly in the strategic importance of the underground: in the fifties and sixties, the station was re-equipped as the atomic bomb shelters. At the beginning and end of each apron mounted heavy metal doors, through which stations can be hermetically sealed. Except for a few specialists nobody saw those doors closed, but you can imagine such a terrible situation: eduyuschuyu crowd down the escalator, followed by a closed metal door in half a meter thick. However, it is possible that these doors have long been out of order.
If you go by metro from the center to the edge, then a half-hour trip is a journey through time: from the thirties to the present. Chic and pump replaced asceticism, even scarcity, and the farther you go from the center, the less often you meet above-ground subway building - the inputs are simply underground passages over which lights up red letter "M". In the center of the station look like small mausoleums, but the mausoleum of Lenin looks like a subway station. In general, the metro, which has long been the name of Lenin, is a virtual mausoleum - the mausoleum of ideas, the mausoleum of the future, the mausoleum of dreams.
As a cult object, subway fanned dark legends. So go the stories that the underground system of tunnels inhabited by huge mutant rat the size of a small dog who occasionally sit on the tracks and make the train stop. At night, the tunnels are special teams, armed with Kalashnikov assault rifles and large lanterns, shot rats. It is said that rats fed dead bodies at night thrown out of the windows of trains. Somewhere in the center of Moscow must be abandoned station platforms which made all those monuments to Stalin, who in the fifties were removed from the city (all of this is unlikely, but many stations still exist huge portraits of Stalin, who easily could have been clean off of a thick layer of plaster.)
But the most beautiful and most terrible legend of the Moscow subway came up with the children and it is one of the horror stories that are told in the pioneer camp. When the House becomes black stories about what happens to people who fall asleep on trains and passed the final station. When a train enters the station, people wake up, pulled out of the wagon and put on a chain. Then they provodyut years underground working and repairing those mysterious mechanisms that lead to a huge underground movement of the body. All the while, they are as it were in a trance, because it is something spiked into the food. When they get old and can no longer work, they will one day wake up in a crowded train, in the midst of people going to work. They do not remember anything about his life underground, they just become clear that yesterday they were young and full of hope, and today the elderly. Their life is over, and they do not understand what happened between yesterday and today.
This story - a perfect metaphor: a lot of older people riding the subway, and when they look at the billboards on the walls of wagons, their faces reflected the alienation and misunderstanding. It is possible that people have of the story would be the same facial expression. All her life was spent in a huge machine of the Soviet empire, and their indistinguishable days passed in the same ideological trance. And now, in old age, they are thrown into the incomprehensible, hostile world that expects them only that they quickly came out and gave way to another. According to the Soviet metaphysics, after the death of a person living in the fruits of their labors. In this sense, the subway - a Soviet Hades, a haven for all those many souls who can do nothing but dark damp underground tunnel.
The first plans for a metro system in Moscow date back to the Russian Empire but were postponed by World War I, the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War. In 1923, the Moscow City Council formed the Underground Railway Design Office at the Moscow Board of Urban Railways. It carried out preliminary studies, and by 1928 had developed a project for the first route from Sokolniki to the city centre. At the same time, an offer was made to German company Siemens Bauunion to submit its own project for the same route. In June 1931, the decision to begin construction of the Moscow Metro was made by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In January 1932 the plan for the first lines was approved, and on March 21, 1933 the Soviet government approved a plan for 10 lines with a total route length of 80 km.
The first lines were built using the Moscow general plan designed by Lazar Kaganovich in the 1930s, and the Metro was named after him until 1955 (Metropoliten im. L.M. Kaganovicha). The Moscow Metro construction engineers consulted with their counterparts from the London Underground, the world's oldest metro system. Partly because of this connection, the design of Gants Hill tube station (although not completed until much later) is reminiscent of a Moscow Metro Station.
Soviet workers did the labor and the art work, but the main engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground. The Britons called for tunneling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, the routes, and the design of the rolling stock. The paranoia of Stalin and the NKVD was evident when the secret police arrested numerous British engineers for espionage--that is for gaining an in-depth knowledge of the city's physical layout. Engineers for the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company were given a show trial and deported in 1933, ending the role of British business in the USSR.
Definately the most picturesque metro in the world. Easy to navigate your around if you can read some Russian. Every station is different and has its own story. Unfortunately there are some unsavoury characters on the metro and it is not uncommon to see drunks and beggars.
In the subway often referred to as the people themselves down diggers. They spend long hours in the tunnels, roam the deserted paths and climb up to where no man has gone before since the days of the Soviet Union, and even since the Second World War. One of the sites I came across information from the famous Digger Vadim Mikhailov, who claims that he and his team are faced with five rats. It sounds like this is not surprising, because a bunch of rats in the subway, but Vadim said, these rats reach 65 centimeters in length excluding the tail. At the height of the rats were approximately 30 cm
It turns out that under the earth inhabited by rats, which are much more common domestic cat. Meeting with several of these individuals can be very dangerous. Digger himself claims that they were able to escape the rat, just throwing them in their crowbars, and ran in the opposite direction from them.
Diggers, to the surface, even alerted the media and the police, but so far they arrived, the rats are gone. As a result, the Diggers accused of lying, but after a couple of days, it was reported that in the area of the zoo, where they were met by rats were radioactive wastes, which are caused by mutations in rats. Report this information ex-military man, who wished to remain unnamed.
Thus, it is known that a train that moves along a circular thread. The train itself the old model's, 50's and 60's. The train stops at every station, but in most cases does not open the door if you need when you "get lucky" encounter with the train you will immediately recognize it from him and breathes freshness and chilling horror. In the cab of the train driver is, seemingly ordinary, but in the form of the same 50s. In the train a lot of people in gray uniforms, their faces always reflected fatigue, because the souls of the workers who built during the Soviet era, these tunnels, and found them in his death. Their souls and wandering along a circular branch, unable to find peace.
The first line, from Okhotny Ryad to Smolenskaya, was opened to the public on 15 May 1935 at 07:00. It was 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) long and included 13 stations. The line connected Sokolniki and Park Kultury. The latter branch was extended westwards to a new station (Kiyevskaya) in March 1937, the first Metro line crossing the Moskva River over the Smolensky Metro Bridge.
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