Open-air museum Kizhi is one of the first in Russia, currently contains about 87 wooden constructions.
Settlements and churches on the island were known from at least the 15th century. The population was rural, but was forced by the government to assist development of the ore mining and iron plants in the area that resulted in a major Kizhi Uprising in 1769–1771. Most villages had disappeared from the island by 1950s and now only a small rural settlement remains. In the 18th century, two major churches and a bell tower were built on the island, which are now known as Kizhi Pogost. In 1950s, dozens of historical wooden buildings were moved to the island from various parts of Karelia for preservation purposes. Nowadays, the entire island and the nearby area form a national open-air museum with more than 80 historical wooden structures. The most famous is the Kizhi Pogost, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The first mentioning of churches on the island is dated to 1563. This document describes two domed wooden churches with a bell tower standing in the southern part of the island (on the site of the present Kizhi Pogost), and mentions their earlier description of 1496. A more detailed description was documented in 1628. In particular, contrary to the later, domed churches of the pogost, the first ones had pyramidal roofs. Those churches were burned by a fire caused by lightning in the end of 17th century. The first church raised after the fire was the Church of the Intercession which was heated and held services all year long. It was reconstructed several times in 1720–1749 and in 1764 rebuilt into its present 9-dome design. In 1714, the 22-dome Transfiguration Church was constructed and soon after the bell tower was added, thereby completing the Kizhi Pogost. The bell tower was entirely rebuilt in 1862. Much earlier, some time in the 17th century, a 300-meter long fence was built around the churches, which then served as a protection ground against Swedish and Polish incursions.
Kizhi Pogost is a historical site dating from the 17th century on Kizhi island. The island is located on Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia (Medvezhyegorsky District), Russia. The pogost is the area inside a fence which includes two large wooden churches (the 22-dome Transfiguration Church and the 9-dome Intercession Church) and a bell-tower. The pogost is famous for its beauty and longevity, despite that it is built exclusively of wood. In 1990, it was included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites and in 1993 listed as a Russian Cultural Heritage site.
State Historical-Architectural and Ethnographic Museum-Reserve "Kizhi" - it's a museum of traditional peasant culture of Karelia. Architectural-ethnographic museum exposition to create a more complete picture of the traditional culture of the peasant population Olonets province XIX - early XX century, show the economic life and the life of a peasant, his spiritual world.
The museum is located 68 km from the city of Petrozavodsk on Kizhi Island, part of the unique natural complex of Kizhi skerries - a picturesque cluster of islands in the south Zaonezhskoe Peninsula. The total area of the museum has nearly ten thousand acres. It comprises the island of Kizhi, its neighboring islands, and also the site of the mainland coast. In addition to the monuments that make up the main exhibition, the museum has several old villages, identified valuable natural sites and monuments of archeology.
Start building the museum in the mid-twentieth century, when the territory of the ensemble Kizhi (within the walls) was declared national reserve (1945), which began the first restoration works on the monuments of the ensemble (1948), on the island of Kizhi was taken first monument - Oshevnev peasant house (1951). As an independent institution of the museum "Kizhi" has existed since 1966 In 1993, the Museum-Reserve "Kizhi" included in the State of the most valuable objects of cultural heritage of the Russian Federation.
Architectural Museum's collection includes 82 Monument: 68 of them are located on the island of Kizhi, 8 - are in the vicinity, 6 - in Petrozavodsk. The basis of the museum's collection is an outstanding monument of Russian wooden architecture - Kizhi architectural ensemble (Kizhi churchyard). The ensemble consists of: the Church of the Transfiguration (1714), the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1694-1764 gg. (?)), Bell tower (1862, rebuilt in 1874), a log fence on a stone foundation (stone base is composed of 1800 city, frame reconstructed in 1959). In 1990, the ensemble of Kizhi was included in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage. For the world and the group, and the Church of the Transfiguration became symbols of Russian wooden architecture.
Over the years the museum on its territory were taken: the oldest surviving wooden churches of Russia Church of the Resurrection of Lazarus (XIV-XVI centuries.), A few hours, more than two dozen peasant houses, a large number of farm buildings mills, barns, barn, bath. Several homes and outbuildings restored traditional interiors.
Collected on the island of Kizhi peasant buildings combined into three exhibition sector: "Russian Zaonezhja", "Russian Pudozh" and "Pryazhinskoye Karels," and also in the two historic villages of the island of Kizhi - fovea and Vasiliev.
Zaonezhie - land, where the Museum "Kizhi", one of the most interesting historical and cultural regions of the Russian North. Russian culture owes Zaonezhskoe villages. So thanks to the farmers from the neighboring island of Kizhi villages and collectors of Russian folklore PN Rybnikov and AF Hilferding survived to this day and have become an integral part of national culture folk epic songs, stories - tales (among the peasants - old). On the island of Kizhi in old cemetery next to the famous churches now buried best storytellers Russia - Trofim Ryabinin, Basil Schegolenok, Leontius Bogdanov, Terence Ievlev Simeon Kornilov.
In the city of Petrozavodsk Museum is 6 historical buildings in the city center. A block of historic buildings, located in the former hospital campus, the museum sent three wooden buildings and a church - the typical patterns of residential and public buildings in the country town of XIX-early XX centuries. After the restoration is placed lecture and exhibition complex of the museum, research library, research and stock departments. After the restoration of two-story brick building of Petrozavodsk trade school, built in 1885, the building houses the administration of the Museum-Reserve "Kizhi" and showroom. In the nearby building craft workshops (end of XIX century.) After the restoration and adaptation of the museum storage facility will be located.
The pogost was built on the southern part of Kizhi island, on a hill 4 meters above the Lake Onega level. Its major basic structural unit is a round log of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) about 30 cm in diameter and 3 to 5 meters long. The Kizhi Pogost was built without using a single nail. Many thousands of logs were brought for construction from the mainland, a complex logistical task in that time.
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